Pergamon

PergamumPergamenePergamesePergamene schoolPergamosAcropolisBergamaHellenistic PergameneKingdom of PergamonPergamenes
Pergamon ( or ), Pergamos or Pergamum ( or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.wikipedia
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Pergamon Altar

Great Altar of PergamonGreat Altar of ZeusTelephus frieze
Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar.
The Pergamon Altar is a monumental construction built during the reign of king Eumenes II in the first half of the 2nd century BC on one of the terraces of the acropolis of the ancient Greek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor.

Attalid dynasty

Kingdom of PergamonAttalidAttalids
During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world. Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, and founder of the Attalid dynasty.
The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.

Elaea (Aeolis)

ElaeaElaia
In Hellenistic times, the town of Elaia at the mouth of the Caicus served as the port of Pergamon.
Elaea ( Elaia) was an ancient city of Aeolis, Asia, the port of Pergamum.

Bergama

Bergama, TurkeyPergamos
It is located 26 km from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern-day Bakırçay) and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey.
The name Bergama, as well as its ancient predecessor Pergamon, are thought to be connected with the even more ancient Luwian language adjective "parrai" (Hittite language equivalent; "parku"), meaning "high" in the same vein as being the etymological root of a number of other ancient cities across Anatolia.

Attalus I

Attalus I SoterAttalusAttalos I
His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133.
Attalus I, surnamed Soter (Σωτήρ, "Savior"; 269–197 BC) ruled Pergamon, an Ionian Greek polis (what is now Bergama, Turkey), first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC.

Eumenes II

Eumenes II of PergamumEumenes II of PergamonEumenes
His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133.
Eumenes II (ruled 197–159 BC) surnamed Soter meaning "Savior" was a ruler of Pergamon, and a son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis and a member of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon.

Philetaerus

PhiletairosPhiletairus of Pergamum
Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, and founder of the Attalid dynasty.
Philetaerus (, Philetairos, c. 343 –263 BC) was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia.

Attalus II Philadelphus

Attalus IIAttalusAttalos II
His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133.
Attalus II Philadelphus (Greek: Ἄτταλος Β΄ ὁ Φιλάδελφος, Attalos II Philadelphos, which means "Attalus the brother-loving"; 220–138 BC) was a King of Pergamon and the founder of modern-day Turkish city Antalya.

Second Macedonian War

Second2nd Macedonian WarRoman war
Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars.
The Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC) was fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes.

First Macedonian War

Firststabbed in the back
Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars.
The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage.

Eumenes I

His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133.
Eumenes I was dynast (ruler) of the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor from 263 BC until his death in 241 BC.

Attalus III

Attalos IIIAttalus III of PergamumAttalus III Philometor Euergetes
His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133.
170 BC – 133 BC) was the last Attalid king of Pergamon, ruling from 138 BC to 133 BC.

Library of Pergamum

PergamumLibrary of Pergamona great library
The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria.
The Library of Pergamum in Pergamum, Turkey, was one of the most important libraries in the ancient world.

Eumenes III

AristonicusAristonicus of PergamonAristonikos
This was challenged by Aristonicus who claimed to be Attalus III's brother and led an armed uprising against the Romans with the help of Blossius, a famous Stoic philosopher.
Eumenes III (originally named Aristonicus; in Greek Aristonikos Ἀριστόνικος) was a pretender to the throne of Pergamon.

Mysia

ancient MysiaHellespontusPhrygia Epictetus
Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey.
The Caïcus in the south rises in Temnus, and from thence flows westward to the Aegean Sea, passing within a few miles of Pergamon.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world.
Pergamum broke away under Eumenes I who defeated a Seleucid army sent against him.

Gongylos

Gongylus of EretriaGongylos of EretriaGongylus
At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas.
There, Xerxes granted him the territory of Pergamon in Asia Minor from circa 470-460 BCE as a reward.

Third Macedonian War

warMacedon's independenceRoman conquest
Eumenes II supported the Romans again, against Perseus of Macedon, in the Third Macedonian War, but the Romans did not reward Pergamon for this.
Perseus' daughter was set to marry Prusias II of Bithynia (in north-western Anatolia, modern Turkey), who was an enemy of Eumenes II of Pergamon (in western Anatolia), an ally of Rome.

Book of Revelation

RevelationApocalypseRevelation of John
Pergamon was the northernmost of the seven churches of Asia cited in the New Testament Book of Revelation.

Roman–Seleucid War

Roman-Syrian WarRoman-Seleucid WarRoman–Syrian War
In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC.
In 200 BC, Rome first became involved in the affairs of Greece, when two of its allies, Pergamum and Rhodes, who had been fighting Philip in the Cretan War, appealed to the Romans for help.

Parchment

parchmentspergamentanimal skins
Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia Minor long before the rise of the city.
The word parchment evolved (via the Latin pergamenum and the French parchemin) from the name of the city of Pergamon, which was a thriving center of parchment production during the Hellenistic period.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
It is located 26 km from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern-day Bakırçay) and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey.
Turkey has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", the "Rock Sites of Cappadocia", the "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük", "Hattusa: the Hittite Capital", the "Archaeological Site of Troy", "Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape", "Hierapolis – Pamukkale", and "Mount Nemrut"; and 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, such as the archaeological sites or historic urban centres of Göbekli Tepe, Gordion, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Perga, Lycia, Sagalassos, Aizanoi, Zeugma, Ani, Harran, Mardin, Konya and Alanya.

Macedonian Wars

Macedonian Warconqueringconquest of the Hellenistic empires
Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars.
Roman maniples (aided by allies from the Aetolian League and Pergamon after 211 BC) did little more than skirmish with Macedonian forces and seize minor territory along the Adriatic coastline in order to "combat piracy".

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion.
Born in the ancient Greek city of Pergamon (present-day Bergama, Turkey), Galen travelled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors.

Antiochus III the Great

Antiochus IIIAntiochus the GreatAntiochus
In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC.
Having thus recovered the central part of Asia Minor (for the Seleucid government had perforce to tolerate the dynasties in Pergamon, Bithynia and Cappadocia), Antiochus turned to recovering the outlying provinces of the north and east.