Pericardium

Walls of the heart, showing pericardium at right.
A transverse section of the thorax, showing the contents of the middle and the posterior mediastinum. The pleural cavity and the pericardial cavity are exaggerated since normally there is no space between the pleurae or between the pericardium and heart. Pericardium is also known as cardiac epidermis.
The pericardial cavity in this image is labeled d and is part of the inferior mediastium. Here we can see its relation to the superior mediastinum a, the pleural cavities c, and the diaphragm e.
3D still showing the pericardium layer.
Fibrous pericardium

Double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.

- Pericardium
Walls of the heart, showing pericardium at right.

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Heart

Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Human heart during an autopsy
Computer-generated animation of a beating human heart
The human heart is in the middle of the thorax, with its apex pointing to the left.
Heart being dissected showing right and left ventricles, from above
Frontal section showing papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right and to the mitral valve on the left via chordae tendineae.
Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium
The swirling pattern of myocardium helps the heart pump effectively
Arterial supply to the heart (red), with other areas labelled (blue).
Autonomic innervation of the heart
Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this figure, the blue and red colors represent blood inflow and outflow (not venous and arterial blood). Initially, all venous blood flows from the tail/atria to the ventricles/head, a very different pattern from that of an adult.
Blood flow through the valves
The cardiac cycle as correlated to the ECG
The x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure.
Transmission of a cardiac action potential through the heart's conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The prepotential is due to a slow influx of sodium ions until the threshold is reached followed by a rapid depolarization and repolarization. The prepotential accounts for the membrane reaching threshold and initiates the spontaneous depolarization and contraction of the cell; there is no resting potential.
3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right).
The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
Cardiac cycle shown against ECG
Heart and its blood vessels, by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century
Animated heart
Elize Ryd making a heart sign at a concert in 2018
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
Basic arthropod body structure – heart shown in red
The human heart viewed from the front
The human heart viewed from behind
The coronary circulation
The human heart viewed from the front and from behind
Frontal section of the human heart
An anatomical specimen of the heart
Heart illustration with circulatory system
Animated Heart 3d Model Rendered in Computer

The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid.

3D rendering of a high resolution computed tomography of the thorax, with mediastinum marked in blue.

Mediastinum

Central compartment of the thoracic cavity.

Central compartment of the thoracic cavity.

3D rendering of a high resolution computed tomography of the thorax, with mediastinum marked in blue.
The mediastinum can be seen from a frontal view in this illustration, with the superior mediastinum labeled a, and the pericardial cavity, which is part of the inferior mediastinum, labeled d.
Widened mediastinum in a patient with achalasia
Mediastinum anatomy.
Some mediastinal structures on a chest radiograph.
Mediastinal adenopathy
A transverse section of the thorax, showing the contents of the middle and the posterior mediastinum.

The inferior mediastinum from this level to the diaphragm. This lower part is subdivided into three regions, all relative to the pericardium – the anterior mediastinum being in front of the pericardium, the middle mediastinum contains the pericardium and its contents, and the posterior mediastinum being behind the pericardium.

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Pulmonary artery labeled at upper right.)

Pulmonary artery

Artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

Artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Pulmonary artery labeled at upper right.)
Volume rendering of a high resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
At the far end, pulmonary arteries (labelled at the bottom) become capillaries at the pulmonary alveoli.
Image showing main pulmonary artery coursing ventrally to the aortic root and trachea, and the right pulmonary artery passes dorsally to the ascending aorta, while the left pulmonary artery passes ventrally to the descending aorta.
Pulmonary circuit
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary artery.Deep dissection.Anterior view.
CT scan of a normal lung, with different levels of pulmonary arteries.
Bronchial anatomy

In order of blood flow, the pulmonary arteries start as the pulmonary trunk that leaves the fibrous pericardium (parietal pericardium) of the ventricular outflow tract of right ventricle (also known as infundibulum or conus arteriosus.

Cardiac muscle

One of three types of vertebrate muscle tissue, with the other two being skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.

One of three types of vertebrate muscle tissue, with the other two being skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.

3D rendering showing thick myocardium within the heart wall.
The swirling musculature of the heart ensures effective pumping of blood.
Cardiac muscle
Illustration of a cardiac muscle cell.
Intercalated discs are part of the cardiac muscle cell sarcolemma and they contain gap junctions and desmosomes.
Dog cardiac muscle (400X)

The cardiac muscle (myocardium) forms a thick middle layer between the outer layer of the heart wall (the pericardium) and the inner layer (the endocardium), with blood supplied via the coronary circulation.

Respiratory system

Thoracic diaphragm

Sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

Sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

Respiratory system
Structure of diaphragm shown using a 3D medical animation still shot
Definition of diaphragm in Blount's 1707 Glossographia Anglicana Nova
Human diaphragm, transverse view from below, showing openings
X-ray of chest, showing top of diaphragm.
Diaphragm and pleural cavities in amphibian (left), bird (center), mammal (right). a, mandible; b, genio-hyoid; c, hyoid; d, sterno-hyoid; e, sternum; f, pericardium; g, septum transversum; h, rectus abdominis; i, abdominal cavity; j, pubis; k, esophagus; l, trachea; m, cervical limiting membrane of abdominal cavity; n, dorsal wall of body; o, lung; o', air-sac.

The central part of the tendon is attached above to pericardium.

Stomach. (Serosa is labeled at far right, and is colored yellow.)

Serous membrane

Smooth tissue membrane of mesothelium lining the contents and inner walls of body cavities, which secrete serous fluid to allow lubricated sliding movements between opposing surfaces.

Smooth tissue membrane of mesothelium lining the contents and inner walls of body cavities, which secrete serous fluid to allow lubricated sliding movements between opposing surfaces.

Stomach. (Serosa is labeled at far right, and is colored yellow.)
Serous membrane lines the pericardial cavity and reflects back to cover the heart—much the same way that an underinflated balloon would form two layers surrounding a fist.
Schematic diagram of an organ invaginating into a serous cavity
Layers of stomach wall
Section of duodenum of cat

The serous membrane covering the heart and lining the mediastinum is referred to as the pericardium, the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs is referred to as the pleura, and that lining the abdominopelvic cavity and the viscera is referred to as the peritoneum.

Parts of the sternum: manubrium (green), body (blue), xiphoid process (purple)

Sternum

Long flat bone located in the central part of the chest.

Long flat bone located in the central part of the chest.

Parts of the sternum: manubrium (green), body (blue), xiphoid process (purple)
Shape of manubrium
Figure 4 Ossification
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Figure 6 Peculiarities
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Manubrium sternal dislocation
Position of sternum (shown in red). Animation.
Sternum seen posteriorly
Sternum cut along the frontal plane showing interior of the bone
Sternum, lateral aspect
Position of the sternum the thoracic cage
Computer-generated image of ribcage turntable highlighting the sternum

Also, the superior sternopericardial ligament attaches the pericardium to the posterior side of the manubrium.

Schematic view of the aorta and its segments

Aorta

Main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries .

Main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries .

Schematic view of the aorta and its segments
Course of the aorta in the thorax (anterior view), starting posterior to the main pulmonary artery, then anterior to the right pulmonary arteries, the trachea and the esophagus, then turning posteriorly to course dorsally to these structures.
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Major aorta anatomy displaying ascending aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, aortic isthmus, aortic arch, and descending thoracic aorta

It runs through a common pericardial sheath with the pulmonary trunk.

An ECG showing pericarditis. Note the ST elevation in multiple leads with slight reciprocal ST depression in aVR.

Pericarditis

An ECG showing pericarditis. Note the ST elevation in multiple leads with slight reciprocal ST depression in aVR.
Figure A shows the location of the heart and a normal heart and pericardium (the sac surrounding the heart). The inset image is an enlarged cross-section of the pericardium that shows its two layers of tissue and the fluid between the layers. Figure B shows the heart with pericarditis. The inset image is an enlarged cross-section that shows the inflamed and thickened layers of the pericardium.
Diffuse ST elevation in a young male due to myocarditis / pericarditis
An ECG showing pericarditis. Note the ST elevation in multiple leads with slight reciprocal ST depression in aVR.
Ultrasounds showing a pericardial effusion in someone with pericarditis
A pericardial effusion as seen on CXR in someone with pericarditis

Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the fibrous sac surrounding the heart.

A transverse section of the thorax, showing the contents of the middle and the posterior mediastinum. The pleural and pericardial cavities are exaggerated since normally there is no space between parietal and visceral pleura and between pericardium and heart.

Pericardial fluid

A transverse section of the thorax, showing the contents of the middle and the posterior mediastinum. The pleural and pericardial cavities are exaggerated since normally there is no space between parietal and visceral pleura and between pericardium and heart.
Pericardial fluid

Pericardial fluid is the serous fluid secreted by the serous layer of the pericardium into the pericardial cavity.