Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.
Leonardo Bruni, Renaissance historian who helped develop the concept of "Middle Ages"
Piquillacta, an administrative urban center of the Wari Empire, a South America Andean civilization that thrived from the 5th to the 8th century
Pakistan's Babusar Pass, part of the Silk Road
Reconstructed depth of Little Ice Age varies among studies. Anomalies shown are from the 1950–80 reference period.
Djenne Terracotta Equestrian (13th–15th century), within the Mali Empire
Bobolice Castle, in Boblice Poland. Medieval European castles were centers of feudal power.
6th century Sassanid defense lines in modern-day Derbent, Dagestan Russia. Prior to the Muslim conquest of Persia, Sassanid Persia with its Zoroastrian Religion was prevalent
The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople was the center of the Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire
Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur constructed by Rajendra Chola.
View of Borobudur, from center point of view. Located in Megelang, Central Java, Indonesia. Built in the 9th century Borobudur is the largest Buddhist Temple in the world.
In China public examinations gave citizens the opportunity to be employed by the Imperial Government through meritocracy. The examination system reached its maximum effectiveness in the 11th–12th centuries. Painting from Ming dynasty era.
A Japanese Buddha sculpture from the Asuka Period
Letter from the Mongolian-Persian Ilkhanate to France, 1305. The Chinese style stamp was used outside China as the official symbol of the Khans and their messengers
Westerner and Arab practicing geometry 15th century manuscript
12th century illustration from the Tale of Genji, the world's first novel.
Authentic reconstruction of Norse site at L'Anse aux Meadows. Photo provided by Dylan Kereluk.
Toltec Atlantean figures at the Tula site. The Toltec Civilization inspired the later Aztecs.
Micronesian navigational chart, these were used by Polynesians to navigate through wind and water currents.
Hale o Keawe, a restored Heiau in the U.S State of Hawaii, used as sacred temple and sacrificial altar. The statues represent traditional gods.
Authentic Maori Waka, used for warfare and navigation in New Zealand
Genoese world map, 1457 it suggests the possibility of sea travel to India from Western Europe though this had not yet been done at the time.

Post-classical history is a periodization used by historians employing a world history approach to history, specifically the school developed during the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

- Post-classical history

3) Post-classical

- Periodization
Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.

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World population, 10,000 BCE – 2,000 CE (vertical population scale is logarithmic)

Human history

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Narrative of humanity's past.

Narrative of humanity's past.

World population, 10,000 BCE – 2,000 CE (vertical population scale is logarithmic)
Cave painting, Lascaux, France, c. 15,000 BCE
Monumental Cuneiform inscription, Sumer, Mesopotamia, 26th century BCE
Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
The Buddha
Persepolis, Achaemenid Empire, 6th century BCE
Pillar erected by India's Maurya Emperor Ashoka
Obelisk of Axum, Ethiopia
Maya observatory, Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Pantheon in Rome, Italy, originally a Roman temple, now a Catholic church
University of Timbuktu, Mali
Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, is among the most recognizable symbols of the Byzantine civilization.
Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, founded 670 CE
Crusader Krak des Chevaliers, Syria
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France: is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom.
A brass "Benin Bronze" from Nigeria
Chennakesava Temple, Belur, India
Battle during 1281 Mongol invasion of Japan
Angkor Wat temple, Cambodia, early 12th century
Moai, Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
Machu Picchu, Inca Empire, Peru
Gutenberg Bible, ca. 1450, produced using movable type
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490), Renaissance Italy
1570 world map, showing Europeans' discoveries
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Turkey
Taj Mahal, Mughal Empire, India
Ming dynasty section, Great Wall of China
Watt's steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution.
Empires of the world in 1898
The first airplane, the Wright Flyer, flew, 1903.
World War I trench warfare
Atomic bombings: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, 1945
Civilians (here, Mỹ Lai, Vietnam, 1968) suffered greatly in 20th-century wars.
Last Moon landing: Apollo 17 (1972)
China urbanized rapidly in the 21st century (Shanghai pictured).
World population, from 10000 BCE to 2000 CE, with projection to 2100 CE
Reconstruction of Lucy, the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton found
Overview map of the peopling of the world by early humans during the Upper Paleolithic, following to the Southern Dispersal paradigm.

Post-classical history (the "Middle Ages" from about 500 to 1500 CE) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age, and the Renaissance (from around 1300 CE).

This scheme of historical periodization (dividing history into antiquity, post-classical, early modern, and late modern periods) was developed for, and applies best to, the history of the Old World, particularly Europe and the Mediterranean.