Peristalsis

peristalticgut motilityperistaltic contractionsperistaltic wavesperistalticallymotilityperistaltic contractionVisible peristalsisperistaltic movementperistaltic movements
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.wikipedia
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Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

Digestion

digestivedigestdigested
In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract.
It will then travel down the esophagus and into the stomach by the action of peristalsis.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract.
It is considerably shorter in the living body because the intestines, which are tubes of smooth muscle tissue, maintain constant muscle tone in a halfway-tense state but can relax in spots to allow for local distention and peristalsis.

Esophagus

oesophagusesophageallower esophageal sphincter
In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English; see spelling differences), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Stomach

gastriccardiafundus
In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract.
The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.

Migrating motor complex

myoelectric complex, migratingmigrating myoelectric complex
The migrating motor complex (MMC) helps trigger peristaltic waves.
These motor complexes trigger peristaltic waves, which facilitate transportation of indigestible substances such as bone, fiber, and foreign bodies from the stomach, through the small intestine, past the ileocecal sphincter, and into the colon.

Earthworm

earthwormsLumbricinanightcrawlers
Earthworms use a similar mechanism to drive their locomotion, and some modern machinery imitates this design. The earthworm is a limbless annelid worm with a hydrostatic skeleton that moves by peristalsis.
Earthworms travel underground by the means of waves of muscular contractions which alternately shorten and lengthen the body (peristalsis).

Esophageal motility study

esophageal manometrymanometryoesophageal manometry
An EMS is typically done to evaluate suspected disorders of motility or peristalsis of the esophagus.

Pylorus

pyloric sphincterpyloricpyloric antrum
Once processed and digested by the stomach, the milky chyme is squeezed through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine.
It may temporarily become partially or completely shut off from the remainder of the stomach during digestion by peristaltic contraction of the prepyloric sphincter; it is demarcated, sometimes, from the pyloric canal by a slight groove.

Large intestine

coloncolorectallarge bowel
Through this process of mixing and continued digestion and absorption of nutrients, the chyme gradually works its way through the small intestine to the large intestine.
The unwanted waste material is moved upwards toward the transverse colon by the action of peristalsis.

Segmentation contractions

segmentationgastric contractions
In contrast to peristalsis, segmentation contractions result in that churning and mixing without pushing materials further down the digestive tract.
Unlike peristalsis, which predominates in the esophagus, segmentation contractions occur in the large intestine and small intestine, while predominating in the latter.

Smooth muscle

smooth muscle cellssmooth musclessmooth muscle cell
In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract.
In the digestive tract, smooth muscle contracts in a rhythmic peristaltic fashion, rhythmically forcing foodstuffs through the digestive tract as the result of phasic contraction.

Annelid

Annelidaannelidsannelid worms
The earthworm is a limbless annelid worm with a hydrostatic skeleton that moves by peristalsis.
The septa of such species also enable them to change the shapes of individual segments, which facilitates movement by peristalsis ("ripples" that pass along the body) or by undulations that improve the effectiveness of the parapodia.

Swallowing

swalloweddeglutitionswallow
After food is chewed into a bolus, it is swallowed and moved through the esophagus.
The bolus moves down towards the esophagus by pharyngeal peristalsis which takes place by sequential contraction of the superior, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles (pharyngeal plexus—IX, X).

Vas deferens

ductus deferensvasa deferentiasperm duct
During ejaculation, the smooth muscle in the walls of the vas deferens contracts reflexively in peristalsis, propelling sperm from the testicles to the urethra.
This is also known as peristalsis.

Seta

setaebristleshairs
As a result, each segment is extended forward, then relaxes and re-contacts the substrate, with hair-like setae preventing backwards slipping.
They help, for example, earthworms to attach to the surface and prevent backsliding during peristaltic motion.

Peristaltic pump

roller pumpelastomeric hose pumpperistaltic
A peristaltic pump is a positive-displacement pump in which a motor pinches advancing portions of a flexible tube to propel a fluid within the tube.
This process is called peristalsis and is used in many biological systems such as the gastrointestinal tract.

Esophageal achalasia

achalasiaCardiospasmAchalasia Awareness – Martin Mueller IV Achalasia Awareness Foundation
It is characterized by incomplete LES relaxation, increased LES tone, and lack of peristalsis of the esophagus (inability of smooth muscle to move food down the esophagus) in the absence of other explanations like cancer or fibrosis.

Ileus

paralytic ileusintestinal obstructionbowel paralysis
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the intestine due to the malfunction of peristalsis.

Lymph

lymphaticlymphatic fluidlymph fluid
The human lymphatic system has no central pump.
Despite low pressure, lymph movement occurs due to peristalsis (propulsion of the lymph due to alternate contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue), valves, and compression during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscle and arterial pulsation.

Basal electrical rhythm

The frequency of contraction differs at each location in the GI tract beginning with 3 per minute in the stomach, then 12 per minute in the duodenum, 9 per minute in the ileum, and a normally low one contraction per 30 minutes in the large intestines that increases 3 to 4 times a day due to a phenomenon called mass movement.

Retroperistalsis

antiperistalticreverse peristalsissegmental reversal
Retroperistalsis is the reverse of the involuntary smooth muscle contractions of peristalsis.

Catastalsis

slow waves of contraction
It resembles ordinary peristalsis but is not preceded by a wave of inhibition.

Symmetry in biology

bilateral symmetryradial symmetrybilaterally symmetrical
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.

Wave

travelling wavewavestraveling wave
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.