Peritoneum

peritonealintraperitonealparietal peritoneumIPvisceral peritoneumlining of the abdomenperitoneal cavityabdomenabdominal cavityabdominal cavity lining
Not to be confused with Perineum.wikipedia
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Mesothelium

mesothelialmembranemesothelial cell
It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue.
The mesothelium is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracic cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity including the mesentery), mediastinum and pericardium (heart sac).

Stomach

gastriccardiafundus
The structures within the intraperitoneal space are called "intraperitoneal" (e.g., the stomach and intestines), the structures in the abdominal cavity that are located behind the intraperitoneal space are called "retroperitoneal" (e.g., the kidneys), and those structures below the intraperitoneal space are called "subperitoneal" or "infraperitoneal" (e.g., the bladder).
A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
This peritoneal lining of the cavity supports many of the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
Both the abdominal and pelvic cavities are lined by a serous membrane known as the parietal peritoneum.

Abdominal wall

anterior abdominal walllayer of the anterior abdominal wallposterior abdominal wall
The outer layer, the parietal peritoneum, is attached to the abdominal wall and the pelvic walls.
There is a common set of layers covering and forming all the walls: the deepest being the visceral peritoneum, which covers many of the abdominal organs (most of the large and small intestines, for example), and the parietal peritoneum- which covers the visceral peritoneum below it, the extraperitoneal fat, the transversalis fascia, the internal and external oblique and transversus abdominis aponeurosis, and a layer of fascia, which has different names according to what it covers (e.g., transversalis, psoas fascia).

Peritoneal cavity

peritonealperitoneal cavities
The peritoneum is one continuous sheet, forming two layers and a potential space between them: the peritoneal cavity.
The peritoneal cavity is a true space between the parietal peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal wall) and visceral peritoneum (the peritoneum that surrounds the internal organs).

Abdominal cavity

abdominalabdomenabdominal (peritoneal) cavity
The peritoneum is the serous membrane forming the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
The abdominal cavity is lined with a protective membrane termed the peritoneum.

Retroperitoneal space

retroperitoneumretroperitonealretro-peritoneal organs
The structures within the intraperitoneal space are called "intraperitoneal" (e.g., the stomach and intestines), the structures in the abdominal cavity that are located behind the intraperitoneal space are called "retroperitoneal" (e.g., the kidneys), and those structures below the intraperitoneal space are called "subperitoneal" or "infraperitoneal" (e.g., the bladder).
The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum.

Vaginal process

processus vaginalis
The tunica vaginalis, the serous membrane covering the male testis, is derived from the vaginal process, an outpouching of the parietal peritoneum.
The vaginal process (or processus vaginalis) is an embryonic developmental outpouching of the parietal peritoneum.

Lesser omentum

lesser
The lesser omentum (small omentum or gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach (hepatogastric ligament) and the first part of the duodenum (hepatoduodenal ligament).

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
The structures within the intraperitoneal space are called "intraperitoneal" (e.g., the stomach and intestines), the structures in the abdominal cavity that are located behind the intraperitoneal space are called "retroperitoneal" (e.g., the kidneys), and those structures below the intraperitoneal space are called "subperitoneal" or "infraperitoneal" (e.g., the bladder).
The anterior (front) surface of these tissues is the peritoneum, while the posterior (rear) surface is the transversalis fascia.

Tunica vaginalis

Cavum vaginaleLamina parietalisLamina visceralis
The tunica vaginalis, the serous membrane covering the male testis, is derived from the vaginal process, an outpouching of the parietal peritoneum.
It is derived from the vaginal process of the peritoneum, which in the fetus precedes the descent of the testes from the abdomen into the scrotum.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
On the diaphragmatic surface, apart from a triangular bare area where it connects to the diaphragm, the liver is covered by a thin, double-layered membrane, the peritoneum, that helps to reduce friction against other organs.

Greater omentum

omentumomentalSplenorenal ligament
The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.

Large intestine

coloncolorectallarge bowel
Retroperitoneal organs in general do not have a complete covering of peritoneum, so they are fixed in location.

Coelom

coelomic fluidacoelomatepseudocoelomate
The peritoneum is the serous membrane forming the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
Coelomate animals or Coelomata (also known as eucoelomates – "true coelom") have a body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm (one of the three primary tissue layers).

Duodenum

duodenaldodecadactylumduodenal cap
The first part of the duodenum lies within the peritoneum but its other parts are retroperitoneal.

Curvatures of the stomach

greater curvaturelesser curvaturegreater curvature of the stomach
At its commencement the greater curvature is covered by peritoneum continuous with that covering the front of the organ.

Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
The mesentery is part of the peritoneum.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
The structures within the intraperitoneal space are called "intraperitoneal" (e.g., the stomach and intestines), the structures in the abdominal cavity that are located behind the intraperitoneal space are called "retroperitoneal" (e.g., the kidneys), and those structures below the intraperitoneal space are called "subperitoneal" or "infraperitoneal" (e.g., the bladder). The mesentery is a double layer of visceral peritoneum that attaches to the gastrointestinal tract.
Intraperitoneal parts of the GI tract are covered with serosa.

Transverse colon

transversecolon, transverseParts of transverse
It is almost completely invested by peritoneum, and is connected to the inferior border of the pancreas by a large and wide duplicature of that membrane, the transverse mesocolon.

Gastrosplenic ligament

gastrolienal ligamentshort gastric vessels
The gastrosplenic ligament is made of peritoneum that connects the greater curvature of stomach with the hilum of the spleen.

Mesentery

mesentericmesenteriestransverse mesocolon
The mesentery is a double layer of visceral peritoneum that attaches to the gastrointestinal tract.
The mesentery is a contiguous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.

Sigmoid arteries

sigmoid arterysigmoid branchesSigmoidal artery
The sigmoid arteries, two or three in number, run obliquely downward and to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major, ureter, and internal spermatic vessels.

Ileum

terminal ileumilealsmall bowel
The ileum, along with the jejunum, is suspended inside the mesentery, a peritoneal formation that carries the blood vessels supplying them (the superior mesenteric artery and vein), lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers.

Phrenicocolic ligament

A fold of peritoneum, the phrenicocolic ligament is continued from the left colic flexure to the thoracic diaphragm opposite the tenth and eleventh ribs; it passes below and serves to support the spleen, and therefore has received the name of sustentaculum lienis.