Permeability (electromagnetism)

permeabilitymagnetic permeabilityrelative permeabilitypermeablemagneticrelative magnetic permeabilityμ'' 0 complex magnetic permeabilitycomplex permeabilityelectromagnetic permeability
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the resistance of a material against the formation of a magnetic field, otherwise known as distributed inductance in transmission line theory.wikipedia
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Electromagnetism

electromagneticelectrodynamicselectromagnetic force
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the resistance of a material against the formation of a magnetic field, otherwise known as distributed inductance in transmission line theory. In electromagnetism, the auxiliary magnetic field H represents how a magnetic field B influences the organization of magnetic dipoles in a given medium, including dipole migration and magnetic dipole reorientation.
The theoretical implications of electromagnetism, particularly the establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation (permeability and permittivity), led to the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905.

Magnetic susceptibility

susceptibilitymagnetic susceptibilitiesvolume magnetic susceptibility
A closely related property of materials is magnetic susceptibility, which is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied magnetic field.
A closely related parameter is the permeability, which expresses the total magnetization of material and volume.

Mu (letter)

muμµ
Magnetic permeability is typically represented by the (italicized) Greek letter μ.

Magnetic field

magnetic fieldsmagneticmagnetic flux density
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the resistance of a material against the formation of a magnetic field, otherwise known as distributed inductance in transmission line theory. In electromagnetism, the auxiliary magnetic field H represents how a magnetic field B influences the organization of magnetic dipoles in a given medium, including dipole migration and magnetic dipole reorientation.
is a material dependent parameter called the permeability.

Vacuum

free spaceevacuatedhigh vacuum
The permeability constant μ 0, also known as the magnetic constant or the permeability of free space, is a measure of the amount of resistance encountered when forming a magnetic field in a classical vacuum.

International System of Units

SISI unitsSI unit
In SI units, permeability is measured in henries per meter (H/m), or equivalently in newtons per ampere squared (N⋅A −2 ).

Saturation (magnetic)

saturationmagnetic saturationsaturation magnetization
This definition is useful in local linearizations of non-linear material behaviour, for example in a Newton–Raphson iterative solution scheme that computes the changing saturation of a magnetic circuit.
The relation between the magnetizing field H and the magnetic field B can also be expressed as the magnetic permeability: \mu = B / H or the relative permeability, where \mu_0 is the vacuum permeability.

Vacuum permeability

magnetic constantpermeability of free spacepermeability of vacuum
The permeability constant μ 0, also known as the magnetic constant or the permeability of free space, is a measure of the amount of resistance encountered when forming a magnetic field in a classical vacuum.
In particular, it appears in relationship to quantities such as permeability and magnetization density, such as the relationship that defines the magnetic H-field in terms of the magnetic B-field.

Henry (unit)

henryhenriesH
In SI units, permeability is measured in henries per meter (H/m), or equivalently in newtons per ampere squared (N⋅A −2 ).
The inductance of a coil depends on its size, the number of turns, and the permeability of the material within and surrounding the coil.

Oliver Heaviside

HeavisideHeaviside, OliverHeaviside|Heaviside's operators
The term was coined in September 1885 by Oliver Heaviside.

Magnetic levitation

diamagnetic levitationelectromagnetic levitationmaglev
For passive magnetic levitation a relative permeability below 1 is needed (corresponding to a negative susceptibility).
:where P_{mag} is the force per unit area in pascals, B is the magnetic field just above the superconductor in teslas, and \mu_0 = 4π×10 −7 N·A −2 is the permeability of the vacuum.

Dipole

dipole momentdipolarmolecular dipole moment
In electromagnetism, the auxiliary magnetic field H represents how a magnetic field B influences the organization of magnetic dipoles in a given medium, including dipole migration and magnetic dipole reorientation.

Mu-metal

mu metalMumetal
Mu-metal is a nickel–iron soft ferromagnetic alloy with very high permeability, which is used for shielding sensitive electronic equipment against static or low-frequency magnetic fields.

Electrical steel

silicon steelgrain-oriented electrical steelelectrical steels
Electrical steel (lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel, transformer steel) is an iron alloy tailored to produce specific magnetic properties: small hysteresis area resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability.

Permalloy

molybdenum-permalloy
Commercial permalloy alloys typically have relative permeability of around 100,000, compared to several thousand for ordinary steel.

Inductance

mutual inductanceinductivemutual induction
Permeability is the inductance per unit length.
Let the inner conductor have radius r_i and permeability \mu_i, let the dielectric between the inner and outer conductor have permeability \mu_d, and let the outer conductor have inner radius r_{o1}, outer radius r_{o2}, and permeability \mu_0.

Stainless steel

stainless-steelstainlessstainless steels
Martensitic stainless steels and Ferritic stainless steels are usually magnetic.

Tesla (unit)

teslaTteslas
This is the magnetic field B, which is measured in webers (volt-seconds) per square-metre (V⋅s/m 2 ), or teslas (T).
For the relation to the units of the magnetising field (ampere per metre or Oersted), see the article on permeability.

Metglas

This rapid solidification creates unique ferromagnetic properties that allows the ribbon to be magnetized and de-magnetized quickly and effectively with very low core losses of approximately 5 mW/kg at 60 Hz and a maximum relative permeability of approximately 1,000,000.

Faraday effect

Faraday rotationFaradayrotation measure
For gyromagnetic media (see Faraday rotation) the magnetic permeability response to an alternating electromagnetic field in the microwave frequency domain is treated as a non-diagonal tensor expressed by:
Formally, the magnetic permeability is treated as a non-diagonal tensor as expressed by the equation:

Diamagnetism

diamagneticdiamagnetLandau diamagnetism
The magnetic permeability of diamagnetic materials is less than μ 0, the permeability of vacuum.

Neodymium magnet

neodymium magnetsneodymiumSupermagnet

Magnetism

magneticmagneticsmagnetic properties
Consequently, diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that a substance exhibits only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field.

Pyrolytic carbon

pyrolytic graphitecarbonother forms
In comparison, pyrolitic graphite has a [[Permeability (electromagnetism)#Relative permeability and magnetic susceptibility|relative permeability]] of 0.9996, whereas bismuth has a relative permeability of 0.9998 (table).