Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsiModern PersianPersian-languagePersian/FarsiDariPersian-speakingPersian:language
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages.wikipedia
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Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages.
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.

Dari

Dari PersianDari languageDari-Persian
It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).
Darī or Dari Persian (فارسی دری, Fārsī-ye Darī, ) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی, Fārsī, ) is a variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.

Western Persian

Iranian PersianFarsi, WesternIran's standard Persian
It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).
Western Persian, Parsi or Farsi (Persian: فارسی) is the most widely spoken dialect of Persian language.

Tajik language

TajikTajikiTajik Persian
It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī, ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī, ), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks.

Persianate society

PersianatePersianate societiesPersianate states
It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran.
A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.

Arabic script

ArabicPerso-Arabic scriptPerso-Arabic
It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.
The Arabic or Perso-Arabic script is a writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian, Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Sindhi, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu and Mandinka.

Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).
The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian.

Persian alphabet

PersianPerso-Arabic alphabetPerso-Arabic
It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.
The Persian alphabet, also known as the Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Western Persian) and Afghanistan (Dari Persian).

Iranian languages

IranianOld IranianIranian language
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages.
Ethnologue estimates that there are 86 Iranian languages, the largest among them being Persian, Pashto, and the Kurdish dialect continuum.

Tajikistan

TadjikistanTajikRepublic of Tajikistan
It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).
Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian).

Exonym and endonym

exonymendonymautonym
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages.
For example, London (originally Latin Londinium) is known by the cognate exonyms Londres in Catalan, Filipino, French, Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish; Londino in Greek; Londen in Dutch; Londra in Italian, Maltese, Romanian, Sardinian and Turkish; Londër in Albanian; Londýn in Czech and Slovak; Londyn in Polish; Lundúnir in Icelandic; Lontoo in Finnish; Landan in Persian.

Central Asia

Central AsianCentralCentral Asian Republics
Throughout history, Persian has been a prestigious cultural language used by various empires in Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia.
It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".

Middle Persian

PahlaviPersianMiddle-Persian
The Persian language is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, which was used in the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC).
It descended from Old Persian, the language of Achaemenid Empire, and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian.

Manichaeism

ManichaeanManichaeansManichean
Old Persian written works are attested in Old Persian cuneiform on several inscriptions from between the 6th and the 4th centuries BC, and Middle Persian literature is attested in Aramaic-derived scripts (Pahlavi and Manichaean) on inscriptions from the time of the Parthian Empire and in books centered in Zoroastrian and Manichaean scriptures from between the 3rd to the 10th century AD.
in Modern Persian آیین مانی Ãyīnⁱ Mānī; ) was a major religion founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in Middle Persian Mānī, New Persian: مانی Mānī, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī Ḥayyā "Living Mani", c.

Fars Province

FarsParsFārs
It originated in the region of Fars (Persia) in southwestern Iran.
The Persian word Fârs is the Arabized form of the earlier form Pârs, which is in turn derived from, the Old Persian name for the Persis region.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).
After the 10th century, Persian, alongside Arabic, was used for scientific, medical, philosophical, arithmetical, historical, and musical works, and renowned Iranian writers—such as Tusi, Avicenna, Qotb-od-Din Shirazi, and Biruni—had major contributions in scientific writing.

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

RubaiyatThe Rubaiyat of Omar KhayyamRubáiyát of Omar Khayyám
Some of the famous works of medieval Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez, The Conference of the Birds by Attar of Nishapur, and the miscellanea of Gulistan and Bustan by Saadi Shirazi.
Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his 1859 translation from Persian to English of a selection of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt) attributed to Omar Khayyam (1048–1131), dubbed "the Astronomer-Poet of Persia".

Shahnameh

ShahnamaShahnameShāhnāmeh
Some of the famous works of medieval Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez, The Conference of the Birds by Attar of Nishapur, and the miscellanea of Gulistan and Bustan by Saadi Shirazi.
The work is of central importance in Persian culture and Persian language, regarded as a literary masterpiece, and definitive of the ethno-national cultural identity of Iran.

Rumi

MevlanaJalaluddin RumiJalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi
Some of the famous works of medieval Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez, The Conference of the Birds by Attar of Nishapur, and the miscellanea of Gulistan and Bustan by Saadi Shirazi.
Rumi's works are written mostly in Persian, but occasionally he also used Turkish, Arabic, and Greek in his verse.

Saadi Shirazi

SaadiSa'diSadi
Some of the famous works of medieval Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez, The Conference of the Birds by Attar of Nishapur, and the miscellanea of Gulistan and Bustan by Saadi Shirazi.
Saadi is widely recognized as one of the greatest poets of the classical literary tradition, earning him the nickname "Master of Speech" (استاد سخن ostâd-e soxan) or simply "Master" (استاد ostâd) among Persian scholars.

Tajiks

TajikTajik peopleTadjiks
There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, Caucasian Tats and Aimaqs.
Tajiks (: Tājīk, Тоҷик) are a Persian-speaking Iranian ethnic group native to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

Persians

PersianIranianPersian people
There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, Caucasian Tats and Aimaqs.
They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian.

Hazaras

HazaraHazara peopleHazara ethnic group
There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, Caucasian Tats and Aimaqs.
They speak the Hazaragi variant of Persian, one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

Aimaq people

AimaqAimakAymāq
There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, Caucasian Tats and Aimaqs.
The Aimaq, also transliterated as Aimak and Aymaq, are a collection of Persian-speaking nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes.

Zoroastrianism

ZoroastrianZoroastriansZoroastrian religion
Old Persian written works are attested in Old Persian cuneiform on several inscriptions from between the 6th and the 4th centuries BC, and Middle Persian literature is attested in Aramaic-derived scripts (Pahlavi and Manichaean) on inscriptions from the time of the Parthian Empire and in books centered in Zoroastrian and Manichaean scriptures from between the 3rd to the 10th century AD.
He is known as Zartosht and Zardosht in Persian and Zaratosht in Gujarati.