Personal data

personally identifiable informationpersonal informationpersonally identifying informationidentityPIIcredit informationpersonally identifiable information (PII)private informationpersonally-identifying informationuser data
Personal data, also known as personal information, personally identifying information (PII), or sensitive personal information (SPI), is any information relating to identifying a person.wikipedia
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General Data Protection Regulation

GDPRGeneral Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)General Data Protection Regulation 2016
Under European and other data protection regimes, which centre primarily around the General Data Protection Regulation, the term "personal data" is significantly broader, and determines the scope of the regulatory regime. As a response to these threats, many website privacy policies specifically address the gathering of PII, and lawmakers such as the European Parliament have enacted a series of legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to limit the distribution and accessibility of PII.
It also addresses the transfer of personal data outside the EU and EEA areas.

Identity theft

identity thiefidentity thievesfalse identity
PII can also be exploited by criminals to stalk or steal the identity of a person, or to aid in the planning of criminal acts.
Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person's name, and perhaps to the other person's disadvantage or loss.

Privacy policy

privacy policiescorporate privacy policiesinformed
As a response to these threats, many website privacy policies specifically address the gathering of PII, and lawmakers such as the European Parliament have enacted a series of legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to limit the distribution and accessibility of PII.
California Business and Professions Code, Internet Privacy Requirements (CalOPPA) mandate that websites collecting Personally Identifiable Information (PII) from California residents must conspicuously post their privacy policy.

Privacy Act 1988

Privacy ActAustralian Privacy Act 1988Federal Privacy Commissioner
In Australia, the Privacy Act 1988 deals with the protection of individual privacy, using the OECD Privacy Principles from the 1980s to set up a broad, principles-based regulatory model (unlike in the US, where coverage is generally not based on broad principles but on specific technologies, business practices or data items).
The principles govern when and how personal information can be collected by these government agencies.

Privacy Act of 1974

Privacy Act1974 Privacy ActComputer Matching and Privacy Act
The Privacy Act of 1974 (Pub.L. 93–579, 88 Stat.
The Privacy Act of 1974, a United States federal law, establishes a Code of Fair Information Practice that governs the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information about individuals that is maintained in systems of records by federal agencies.


In hacker and Internet slang, the practice of finding and releasing such information is called "doxing".
Doxing or doxxing (from dox, abbreviation of documents) is the Internet-based practice of researching and broadcasting private or identifying information (especially personally identifying information) about an individual or organization.


onlinethe Internetweb
The concept of PII has become prevalent as information technology and the Internet have made it easier to collect PII leading to a profitable market in collecting and reselling PII.
Some websites, such as Reddit, have rules forbidding the posting of personal information of individuals (also known as doxxing), due to concerns about such postings leading to mobs of large numbers of Internet users directing harassment at the specific individuals thereby identified.

Online identity

identityonline identitiesInternet identity
Personal data is a key component of our Online identity and can be exploited by individuals.
Although some people choose to use their real names online, some Internet users prefer to be anonymous, identifying themselves by means of pseudonyms, which reveal varying amounts of personally identifiable information.

Identity fraud

a false identityfake IDfake name
, or Identity Fraud) for celebrities to gather data from other users more easily.
Identity fraud is the use by one person of another person's personal information, without authorization, to commit a crime or to deceive or defraud that other person or a third person.

Online Privacy Protection Act

California Online Privacy Protection ActCalifornia Online Privacy Protection Act (OPPA)California Online Privacy Protection Act (OPPA) of 2003
According to this California State Law, under the Business and Professions Code, Division 8 Special Business Regulations, Chapter 22 Internet Privacy Requirements, operators of commercial websites that collect Personally Identifiable Information (PII) from California's residents are required to conspicuously post and comply with a privacy policy that meets specific requirements.

Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner

Federal Act on Data Protection
The Federal Act on Data Protection of 19 June 1992 (in force since 1993) has set up a strict protection of privacy by prohibiting virtually any processing of personal data which is not expressly authorized by the data subjects.

201 CMR 17.00

The Massachusetts General Law Chapter 93H and its new regulations 201 CMR 17.00 require that any companies or persons who store or use personal information (PI) about a Massachusetts resident develop a written, regularly audited plan to protect personal information.


Sometimes a person may desire a long-term relationship (such as a reputation) with another party without necessarily disclosing personally identifying information to that party.

California S.B. 1386

SB 1386California data security breach notification lawCalifornia Senate Bill 1386
California S.B. 1386 was a bill passed by the California legislature that amended civil codes 1798.29, 1798.82 and 1798.84, the California law regulating the privacy of personal information.

Privacy law

privacyprivacy lawsinvasion of privacy
Privacy law refers to the laws that deal with the regulation, storing, and using of personally identifiable information of individuals, which can be collected by governments, public or private organisations, or other individuals.

Personal Information Agent

A Personal Information Agent (PIA) is an individual, business, or organization who is expressly authorized by another identifiable individual in dealings with third persons, businesses or organizations concerning Personally identifiable information (PII).

Social Security number

Social Security cardsocial security numbersSSN
A Social Security Number (SSN) without a name or some other associated identity or context information is not SB1386 "personal information", but it is PII.


Federal Data Protection ActGerman Data Protection Act (1990)German Federal Data Protection Act

EE Limited

EEEverything EverywhereEE TV
For instance, data can be altered and be used to create fake documents, hijack mail boxes and phone calls or harass people, like on the data breach from the EE Limited company.
The scam messages contained a link to a fake EE website, encouraging them to enter their personal details and card number.

Privacy laws of the United States

right to privacyviolation of privacyinvasion of privacy
California's "Shine the Light" law (SB 27, CA Civil Code § 1798.83), operative on January 1, 2005, outlines specific rules regarding how and when a business must disclose use of a customer's personal information and imposes civil damages for violation of the law.

Personal identity

;Other: Identity and language learning, Metaphysical necessity, Otium, Personally identifiable information, Personal life, Privacy, immaterialism, Personhood, Gender systems (Social construction of gender difference), The Persistence of Memory (short story), The Persistence of Memory, Transhumanism

Protected health information

protected health information (PHI)medical informationPHI
One of the primary focuses of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), is to protect a patient's Protected Health Information (PHI), which is similar to PII.

United States

The abbreviation PII is widely accepted in the United States, but the phrase it abbreviates has four common variants based on personal / personally, and identifiable / identifying.