Personal identity

identityoneselfself-identifyidentitiesPersonpersonalpersonal continuityanimalismbundle theoristBundle theory of the self
In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.wikipedia
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Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
In contemporary metaphysics, the matter of personal identity is referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity.
The metaphysical positions one takes on identity have far-reaching implications on issues such as the Mind–body problem, personal identity, ethics, and law.

Person

peoplepersonsindividual
Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.
In addition to the question of personhood, of what makes a being count as a person to begin with, there are further questions about personal identity and self: both about what makes any particular person that particular person instead of another, and about what makes a person at one time the same person as they were or will be at another time despite any intervening changes.

Reasons and Persons

teletransportation problem
Derek Parfit's teletransportation problem is designed to bring out intuitions about corporeal continuity.
Reasons and Persons is a 1984 book by the philosopher Derek Parfit, in which the author discusses ethics, rationality and personal identity.

Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
In another concept of mind, the set of cognitive faculties are considered to consist of an immaterial substance, separate from and independent of the body.
Consciousness in mammals (this includes humans) is an aspect of the mind generally thought to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, sentience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment.

Afterlife

life after deathhereafterafter death
The problem of personal identity is at the center of discussions about life after death and, to a lesser extent, immortality.
The afterlife (also referred to as life after death) is the belief that the essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues after the death of the physical body.

Memory

memorieshuman memorymemory formation
memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.
If past events could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language, relationships, or personal identity to develop.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingEssay on Human UnderstandingAn Essay on Human Understanding
Book II Chapter XXVII entitled "On Identity and Diversity" in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) has been said to be one of the first modern conceptualizations of consciousness as the repeated self-identification of oneself.
He also offers a theory of personal identity, offering a largely psychological criterion.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?"
Metaphysics deals with the topic of identity.

Identity (philosophy)

identitysamenessnumerical identity
Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.
The notion of identity gives rise to many philosophical problems, including the identity of indiscernibles (if x and y share all their properties, are they one and the same thing?), and questions about change and personal identity over time (what has to be the case for a person x at one time and a person y at a later time to be one and the same person?).

James Giles (philosopher)

Vulnerability and care theory of loveJames GilesGiles' theory of sexual desire
James Giles, a principal exponent of this view, argues that the no-self or eliminativist theory and the bundle or reductionist theory agree about the non-existence of a substantive self.
He has written about personal identity and the self, and has published theories of the reason for human hairlessness and the cause of sexual desire.

Right to personal identity

* Right to personal identity
However, personal identity becomes more complex as an individual develops a conscience.

Philosophy of mind

mindmental philosophyphilosophy of the mind
These comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists and philosophers of mind from at least the time of René Descartes.
Questions about what a person is and what his or her identity consists of also have much to do with the philosophy of mind.

Open individualism

;Identity: Abstract object, Nominal identity, Open individualism, Personal life, Self-Schema, Self (philosophy), Self-concept, Identity and change, Mind/brain identity, Ship of Theseus, Narrative identity
It is a theoretical solution to the question of personal identity, being contrasted with empty individualism, the view that personal identities correspond to a fixed pattern that instantaneously disappears with the passage of time, and with closed individualism, the common view that personal identities are particular to subjects and yet survive over time.

Philosophy of self

selfSelf (philosophy)Selfhood
Book II Chapter XXVII entitled "On Identity and Diversity" in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) has been said to be one of the first modern conceptualizations of consciousness as the repeated self-identification of oneself. ;Identity: Abstract object, Nominal identity, Open individualism, Personal life, Self-Schema, Self (philosophy), Self-concept, Identity and change, Mind/brain identity, Ship of Theseus, Narrative identity John Locke considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
David Hume undertook looking at the mind–body problem.
Empiricist philosophers, such as Hume and Berkeley, favoured the bundle theory of personal identity.

Philip K. Dick

Philip K DickElectric Shepherd ProductionsHoly Quarrel
;People: Søren Kierkegaard, Philip K. Dick, Daniel Kolak, Gottlob Frege, Derek Parfit, Anthony Quinton, David Wiggins, Sydney Shoemaker, Bernard Williams, Peter van Inwagen, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Hugo Münsterberg, Wilhelm Wundt, Paul Ricœur, James Marcia, Mario Rodríguez Cobos
His interest in questions surrounding the nature of reality, identity, drug abuse, mental illness, and transcendental experiences informed much of his work.

Derek Parfit

ParfitD. A. ParfitParfit, Derek
;People: Søren Kierkegaard, Philip K. Dick, Daniel Kolak, Gottlob Frege, Derek Parfit, Anthony Quinton, David Wiggins, Sydney Shoemaker, Bernard Williams, Peter van Inwagen, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Hugo Münsterberg, Wilhelm Wundt, Paul Ricœur, James Marcia, Mario Rodríguez Cobos
Derek Antony Parfit (11 December 1942 – 1 January 2017) was a British philosopher who specialised in personal identity, rationality, and ethics.

Daniel Kolak

;People: Søren Kierkegaard, Philip K. Dick, Daniel Kolak, Gottlob Frege, Derek Parfit, Anthony Quinton, David Wiggins, Sydney Shoemaker, Bernard Williams, Peter van Inwagen, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Hugo Münsterberg, Wilhelm Wundt, Paul Ricœur, James Marcia, Mario Rodríguez Cobos
Daniel Kolak (born 1955 in Zagreb, Croatia) is a Croatian-American philosopher who works primarily in philosophy of mind, personal identity, cognitive science, philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of logic, philosophy of religion, and aesthetics.

Meme

memesInternet memeviral meme
;Continuity: Mindstream, Consciousness, Dependent origination, Introspect, Meme, Mnemonic, Percept, Perdurantism, Synchronicity, Noumena, Neuroplasticity (Spike-timing-dependent plasticity), Hebbian theory, Dogen (being and time), process philosophy
A third approach, described by Joseph Poulshock, as "radical memetics" seeks to place memes at the centre of a materialistic theory of mind and of personal identity.

Thought experiment

thought experimentsGedankenexperimentthought-experiment
But sense of self breaks down when considering some events such as memory loss, split personality disorder, brain damage, brainwashing, and various thought experiments.

Mindstream

Mind Streamcitta-santānamental streams
;Continuity: Mindstream, Consciousness, Dependent origination, Introspect, Meme, Mnemonic, Percept, Perdurantism, Synchronicity, Noumena, Neuroplasticity (Spike-timing-dependent plasticity), Hebbian theory, Dogen (being and time), process philosophy

Paul Ricœur

Paul RicoeurRicoeurRicoeur, Paul
;People: Søren Kierkegaard, Philip K. Dick, Daniel Kolak, Gottlob Frege, Derek Parfit, Anthony Quinton, David Wiggins, Sydney Shoemaker, Bernard Williams, Peter van Inwagen, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Hugo Münsterberg, Wilhelm Wundt, Paul Ricœur, James Marcia, Mario Rodríguez Cobos

Personal data

personally identifiable informationpersonal informationpersonally identifying information
;Other: Identity and language learning, Metaphysical necessity, Otium, Personally identifiable information, Personal life, Privacy, immaterialism, Personhood, Gender systems (Social construction of gender difference), The Persistence of Memory (short story), The Persistence of Memory, Transhumanism

Diachronic

diachronicallydiachrony
In contemporary metaphysics, the matter of personal identity is referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity.

Synchronic

Synchronic (disambiguation)synchronically
The synchronic problem concerns the question of what features and traits characterize a person at a given time.