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Given name

néefirst name
In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Abraham and Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan.
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.

Anthroponymy

anthroponymanthroponymicanthroponomastics
The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy.
Anthroponomastics (or anthroponymy) is the study of the names of human beings.

Patronymic

patronymibnbin
Some cultures, including Western ones, also add (or once added) patronymics or matronymics. In many families, single or multiple middle names are simply alternative names, names honoring an ancestor or relative, or, for married women, sometimes their maiden names. In some traditions, however, the roles of the first and middle given names are reversed, with the first given name being used to honor a family member and the middle name being used as the usual method to address someone informally. Many Catholic families choose a saint's name as their child's middle name or this can be left until the child's confirmation when they choose a saint's name for themselves. Cultures that use patronymics or matronymics will often give middle names to distinguish between two similarly named people: e.g., Einar Karl Stefánsson and Einar Guðmundur Stefánsson. This is especially done in Iceland (as shown in example) where people are known and referred to almost exclusively by their given name/s.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an earlier male ancestor.

Matronymic

matronymmatronymic surnamematronymic name
Some cultures, including Western ones, also add (or once added) patronymics or matronymics. In many families, single or multiple middle names are simply alternative names, names honoring an ancestor or relative, or, for married women, sometimes their maiden names. In some traditions, however, the roles of the first and middle given names are reversed, with the first given name being used to honor a family member and the middle name being used as the usual method to address someone informally. Many Catholic families choose a saint's name as their child's middle name or this can be left until the child's confirmation when they choose a saint's name for themselves. Cultures that use patronymics or matronymics will often give middle names to distinguish between two similarly named people: e.g., Einar Karl Stefánsson and Einar Guðmundur Stefánsson. This is especially done in Iceland (as shown in example) where people are known and referred to almost exclusively by their given name/s.
A matronymic is a personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor.

Legal name

real nameofficial namelegal surname
In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth name or legal name of the individual.
A person's first legal name generally is the name of the person that was given for the purpose of registration of the birth and which then appears on a birth certificate (see birth name), but may change subsequently.

Surname

family nameoccupational surnamelast name
In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Abraham and Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion (in some cultures) of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).

Middle name

middlesecond namemiddle initial
In many families, single or multiple middle names are simply alternative names, names honoring an ancestor or relative, or, for married women, sometimes their maiden names. In some traditions, however, the roles of the first and middle given names are reversed, with the first given name being used to honor a family member and the middle name being used as the usual method to address someone informally. Many Catholic families choose a saint's name as their child's middle name or this can be left until the child's confirmation when they choose a saint's name for themselves. Cultures that use patronymics or matronymics will often give middle names to distinguish between two similarly named people: e.g., Einar Karl Stefánsson and Einar Guðmundur Stefánsson. This is especially done in Iceland (as shown in example) where people are known and referred to almost exclusively by their given name/s.
In several cultures, a middle name is a portion of a personal name that is written between the person's given name and their surname.

Mononymous person

mononymmononymouslymononymous
However, in some areas of the world, many people are known by a single name, and so are said to be mononymous.
While many European royals have formally sported long chains of names, in practice they have tended to use only one or two and not to use surnames.

Hungarian names

Hungarian surnameHungarianHungarian (eastern) name order
The order family name, given name is commonly known as the Eastern order and is primarily used in East Asia (for example in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam), as well as in Southeast Asia Cambodia and Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, and also in Hungary (the original homeland of the Hungarians was likely in Asia, at the southern foothills of the Ural Mountains).
In the Hungarian language, whether written or spoken, these names are invariably given in the "Eastern name order", or family name followed by given name (In foreign language texts, names are often given with the family name last).

Bilingual name

Bilingual name
A bilingual name is a name of a person that is spelled, if not pronounced, exactly the same in two languages.

List of most popular given names

most popular given namesbaby namemost popular name for boys in Australia
List of most popular given names
Lists of widely used given names can consist of those most often bestowed upon infants born within the last year, thus reflecting the current naming trends, or else be composed of the personal names occurring most within the total population.

Name-letter effect

Name Letter Task
Name-letter effect
The name-letter effect is the tendency of people to prefer the letters in their name over other letters in the alphabet.

Personally identifiable information

personal datapersonal informationpersonally identifying information
Personally identifiable information
Full name (if not common)

Letter case

minusculemajusculelowercase
When East Asian names are transliterated into the Latin alphabet, some people prefer to convert them to the Western order, while others leave them in the Eastern order but write the family name in capital letters.
With personal names, this practice can vary (sometimes all words are capitalised, regardless of length or function), but is not limited to English names.

Spanish naming customs

SpanishSpanish surnamesy
Binomial systems: apart for given name, people are described by their surnames, which they obtain from one of their parents. Most modern European personal naming systems, such as Russian and Spanish, are of this type.
List of personal naming conventions (for other languages)

Phrase

phrasesphrasalword-group
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual.

Western culture

WesternWestern civilizationWest
In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Abraham and Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan.

Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Abraham and Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan.

Arab culture

ArabArabicculture
Another naming convention that is used mainly in the Arabic culture and in different other areas across Africa and Asia is connecting the person's given name with a chain of names, starting with the name of the person's father and then the father's father and so on, usually ending with the family name (tribe or clan name).

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

TchaikovskyPyotr TchaikovskyPeter Tchaikovsky
For instance, as a middle name as with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (whose father's given name was Ilya), or as a last name as with Björk Guðmundsdóttir (whose father was named Guðmundur) or Heiðar Helguson (whose mother was named Helga).

Björk

Björk GuðmundsdóttirBjorkBjorkian
For instance, as a middle name as with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (whose father's given name was Ilya), or as a last name as with Björk Guðmundsdóttir (whose father was named Guðmundur) or Heiðar Helguson (whose mother was named Helga).

Heiðar Helguson

HelgusonHeiðar Sigurjónsson
For instance, as a middle name as with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (whose father's given name was Ilya), or as a last name as with Björk Guðmundsdóttir (whose father was named Guðmundur) or Heiðar Helguson (whose mother was named Helga).

Eastern world

EasternEastthe East
Similar concepts are present in Eastern cultures.

Machiguenga

MatsigenkaMachiguengasMatsiguenka
Certain isolated tribes, such as the Machiguenga of the Amazon, do not use personal names.

Pseudonym

nom de guerrealiaspseudonyms
A person's full name usually identifies that person for legal and administrative purposes, although it may not be the name by which the person is commonly known; some people use only a portion of their full name, or are known by titles, nicknames, pseudonyms or other formal or informal designations.