Personhood

personspersonPersonhood USAnon-human person individualhuman animalhuman personindividual personsKeith Mason (activist)legal personhood
Personhood is the status of being a person.wikipedia
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Person

peoplepersonsindividual
Personhood is the status of being a person.
The defining features of personhood and consequently what makes a person count as a person differ widely among cultures and contexts.

Beginning of human personhood

fetal personhoodbeginning of actual human personhoodbeginning of human life
Personhood continues to be a topic of international debate and has been questioned critically during the abolition of human and nonhuman slavery, in theology, in debates about abortion and in fetal rights and/or reproductive rights, in animal rights activism, in theology and ontology, in ethical theory, and in debates about corporate personhood and the beginning of human personhood.
There are differences of opinion as to the precise time when human personhood begins and the nature of that status.

Non-human

nonhumannon-humansnonhuman animal
According to the "naturalist" epistemological tradition, from Descartes through Locke and Hume, the term may designate any human (or non-human) agent who: (1) possesses continuous consciousness over time; and (2) who is therefore capable of framing representations about the world, formulating plans and acting on them.
In the animal rights movement, it is common to distinguish between "human animals" and "non-human animals".

Animal rights

rightsanimal-rightsanimal rights activists
Personhood continues to be a topic of international debate and has been questioned critically during the abolition of human and nonhuman slavery, in theology, in debates about abortion and in fetal rights and/or reproductive rights, in animal rights activism, in theology and ontology, in ethical theory, and in debates about corporate personhood and the beginning of human personhood.
Also in Austria, the Supreme Court ruled in January 2008 that a chimpanzee (called Matthew Hiasl Pan by those advocating for his personhood) was not a person, after the Association Against Animal Factories sought personhood status for him because his custodians had gone bankrupt.

Colorado Amendment 62

2010Amendment 62
Following two attempts to enact similar changes in Colorado in 2008 and 2010, a 2011 initiative to amend the state constitution by referendum in the state of Mississippi also failed to gain approval with around 58% of voters disapproving.
Colorado Amendment 62 was an initiated constitutional amendment that appeared on the November 2, 2010 ballot defining personhood as “every human being from the beginning of the biological development of that human being.” It sought to ban abortion in the state of Colorado and challenge Roe v. Wade.

Abortion

abortionsinduced abortionabort
Personhood continues to be a topic of international debate and has been questioned critically during the abolition of human and nonhuman slavery, in theology, in debates about abortion and in fetal rights and/or reproductive rights, in animal rights activism, in theology and ontology, in ethical theory, and in debates about corporate personhood and the beginning of human personhood.
Generally, the former position argues that a human fetus is a human person with a right to live, making abortion morally the same as murder.

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
Personhood continues to be a topic of international debate and has been questioned critically during the abolition of human and nonhuman slavery, in theology, in debates about abortion and in fetal rights and/or reproductive rights, in animal rights activism, in theology and ontology, in ethical theory, and in debates about corporate personhood and the beginning of human personhood.
The subject matter includes animal rights, animal welfare, animal law, speciesism, animal cognition, wildlife conservation, the moral status of nonhuman animals, the concept of nonhuman personhood, human exceptionalism, the history of animal use, and theories of justice.

Roe v. Wade

right to chooseRoe vs. WadeRoe v Wade
The term was used by Justice Blackmun in Roe v. Wade.
Some opponents of abortion maintain that personhood begins at fertilization or conception, and should therefore be protected by the Constitution; the dissenting justices in Roe instead wrote that decisions about abortion "should be left with the people and to the political processes the people have devised to govern their affairs."

Legal person

legal personalitylegal entitybody corporate
According to law, only a natural person or legal personality has rights, protections, privileges, responsibilities, and legal liability.
While natural persons acquire legal personality "naturally", simply by being born (or before that, in some jurisdictions), juridical persons must have legal personality conferred on them by some "unnatural", legal process, and it is for this reason that they are sometimes called "artificial" persons.

Dolphin

dolphinsgenital slitaquatic mammal
While many of White's criteria are somewhat anthropocentric, some animals such as dolphins would still be considered persons.
Several scientists who have researched dolphin behaviour have proposed that dolphins' unusually high intelligence in comparison to other animals means that dolphins should be seen as non-human persons who should have their own specific rights and that it is morally unacceptable to keep them captive for entertainment purposes or to kill them either intentionally for consumption or unintentionally as by-catch.

Abortion debate

abortionmorality of abortionabortion rights
Discussion of the putative personhood of the fetus may be complicated by the current legal status of children.

Speciesism

speciesistanti-speciesistspecies
Those who oppose personhood for non-human animals are known as human exceptionalists, speciesists, or human supremacists.
This belief in human exceptionalism is often rooted in the Abrahamic religions, such as the Book of Genesis 1:26: "Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." Animal rights advocates state that dominion refers to stewardship, not ownership. Jesus Christ taught that a person is worth more than many sparrows. But the Imago Dei may be personhood itself, although we humans have only achieved efficiencies in educating and otherwise acculturating humans. Proverbs 12:10 mentions that "The righteous one takes care of his domestic animals."

Animism

animistanimisticanimists
In animistic religion, animals, plants, and other entities may be persons or deities.
For the Ojibwe encountered by Hallowell, personhood did not require human-likeness, but rather humans were perceived as being like other persons, who for instance included rock persons and bear persons.

Transhumanism

transhumanisttranshumaniststranshuman
The theoretical landscape of personhood theory has been altered recently by controversy in the bioethics community concerning an emerging community of scholars, researchers, and activists identifying with an explicitly transhumanist position, which supports morphological freedom, even if a person changed so much as to no longer be considered a member of the human species.
A different response comes from transhumanist personhood theorists who object to what they characterize as the anthropomorphobia fueling some criticisms of this research, which science fiction writer Isaac Asimov termed the "Frankenstein complex".

Colorado Right to Life

Colorado Right To Life was also the leading force behind 2008's Colorado Amendment 48 (2008), otherwise known as the "Personhood Amendment" (basically a statewide Human Life Amendment), and is trying to get another Personhood Amendment on the ballot for 2010, in cooperation with Personhood USA.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law and is closely tied with legal and political concepts of citizenship, equality, and liberty.

Law

legallawslegal theory
Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law and is closely tied with legal and political concepts of citizenship, equality, and liberty.

Politics

politicalpoliticianpolitically
Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law and is closely tied with legal and political concepts of citizenship, equality, and liberty.

Citizenship

citizencitizensburgher
Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law and is closely tied with legal and political concepts of citizenship, equality, and liberty.

Equality before the law

equalityequal rightsequality under the law
Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law and is closely tied with legal and political concepts of citizenship, equality, and liberty.

Liberty

freedomliberationliberties
Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law and is closely tied with legal and political concepts of citizenship, equality, and liberty.

Natural person

naturalnatural personsindividual
According to law, only a natural person or legal personality has rights, protections, privileges, responsibilities, and legal liability.

Rights

rightRights Ethicspolitical rights
According to law, only a natural person or legal personality has rights, protections, privileges, responsibilities, and legal liability.

Legal liability

liabilityliablecivil liability
According to law, only a natural person or legal personality has rights, protections, privileges, responsibilities, and legal liability.