Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvianPERPerùEl PeruPERepública del PerúEl PerúNueva Granada
Peru (Perú ; Piruw Republika ; Piruw Suyu ), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.wikipedia
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Ecuador

ECURepublic of EcuadorEcuadorian
It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Ecuador (Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Colombia

COLRepublic of ColombiaColombian
It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Colombia is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, the northwest by Panama, the south by both Ecuador and Peru, the east by Venezuela, the southeast by Brazil, and the west by the Pacific.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
Peru (Perú ; Piruw Republika ; Piruw Suyu ), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
It includes twelve sovereign states (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela), a part of France (French Guiana), and a non-sovereign area (the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory though this is disputed by Argentina).

Bolivia

BOLBolivianPlurinational State of Bolivia
It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru.

Pre-Columbian Peru

Peruvian territoryPeruPre-columbian
Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures.
Peruvian territory was inhabited 14,000 years ago by hunters and gatherers.

Norte Chico civilization

Norte ChicoNorte Chico regionCaral-Supe civilization
Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.
The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex pre-Columbian-era society that included as many as thirty major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru.

Viceroyalty of Peru

PeruViceroy of PeruViceroyalty of Perú
The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

Alberto Fujimori

Fujimoria past presidentAlberto Fujimori Fujimori
Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent.
Alberto Fujimori Fujimori (born 28 July 1938) is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000.

Simón Bolívar

Simon BolivarBolívarSimón Bolivar
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824.
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios Ponte-Andrade y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar (, also ) and also colloquially as El Libertador, or the Liberator, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led the independence of what are currently the states of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama from the Spanish Empire.

Cradle of civilization

first civilizationcradles of civilizationcradle of civilisation
Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.
Scholars accept that the civilizations of Mesoamerica, mainly in modern Mexico, and Norte Chico, in the north-central coastal region of Peru, emerged independently from those in Eurasia.

Indigenous peoples in Peru

indigenousindigenous peoplePeru
Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians.
Indigenous peoples in Peru or Native Peruvians comprise many ethnic groups who inhabit territory in present-day Peru.

José de San Martín

San MartínGeneral San MartínSan Martin
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824.
On 12 July 1821, after seizing partial control of Lima, San Martín was appointed Protector of Peru, and Peruvian independence was officially declared on 28 July.

Languages of Peru

indigenous languages in Peruindigenous languagesIndigenous languages of Peru
The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other indigenous languages.
Peru has many languages in use.

Pacific Alliance

President ''pro tempore'' of the Pacific AllianceAlianza del PacíficoPresident pro tempore of the Pacific Alliance
Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.
The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.

Asian Latin Americans

Asian Latin AmericanAsianAsian Latino
Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians.
The highest ratio of any country in the region is 5%, in Peru.

Conquistador

conquistadorsconquistadoresSpanish conquistadors
An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador.
Other conquistadors took over the Inca Empire after crossing the Isthmus of Panama and sailing the Pacific to northern Peru.

Fujimorism

fujimoristFujimoristaFujimorists
Even after the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power, even causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018.
The term Fujimorism or Fujimorismo (the Spanish term is also used in English language texts) denotes the policies and the political ideology of former President of Peru Alberto Fujimori as well as the personality cult built around him, his policies and his family.

Trans-Pacific Partnership

Trans Pacific PartnershipTPPTrans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.

Chavín culture

ChavínChavinChavin culture
The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar.
The culture developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BCE to 200 BCE.

Nazca culture

NazcaNascaIca-Nazca culture
On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
100 BC to 800 AD beside the arid, southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.

Chavín de Huantar

Chavin de HuantarChavín de HuántarChavín
The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar.
Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site in Peru, containing ruins and artifacts constructed beginning at least by 1200 BCE and occupied by later cultures until around 400–500 BCE by the Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture.

Cusco

CuzcoCusco, PeruCuzco, Peru
In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco.
Cusco (Cuzco, Cusco ; Qusqu, Qosqo, ), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.

Inca Empire

IncaIncasIncan
Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco.
The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century.

Brazil

BRABrasilBrazilian
It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior, sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and France (French overseas region of French Guiana) to the north.