In ancient Indian subcontinent, the city of Purushapura (which became Peshawar), was established near the Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati
The nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery was established in 46 CE, and was once a major centre of Buddhist learning.
Peshawar's Kanishka stupa once kept sacred Buddhist relics in the Kanishka casket.
Clock Tower Peshawar
Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.
The interior of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is elaborately frescoed with elegant and intricately detailed floral and geometric motifs.
Peshawar's Sunehri Mosque dates from the Mughal era.
Peshawar's Bala Hissar fort was once the royal residence of the Durrani Afghan kings.
The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival style.
Built for wealthy local merchants in a Central Asian architectural style, the Sethi Mohallah features several homes dating from the British era.
Edwardes College was built during the British-era, and is now one of Peshawar's most prestigious educational institutions.
The city serves as a gateway to the Khyber Pass, whose beginning is marked by the Khyber Gate.
Peshawar sits at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, which has been used as a trade route since the Kushan era approximately 2,000 years ago.
A view of old Peshawar's famous Qissa Khawani Bazaar.
Much of Peshawar's old city still features examples of traditional style architecture.
City Center Road is the major trade zone in Peshawar.
Hayatabad area
New flyovers, such as this one near the suburb of Hayatabad, have been constructed in recent years to improve traffic flow.
Peshawar International Airport offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
One of Peshawar's privately run intercity bus terminals.
The Peshawar Museum is known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist art.
University of Peshawar
Islamia College University
Iqra National University
Museum of Peshawar University
FAST Peshawar Campus
Bhittani Plaza
BBQ shop on Food Street
Peshawar Gymkhana Cricket Ground

Capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its largest city.

- Peshawar

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Emperor of the Kushan dynasty, under whose reign (c.

Gold coin of Kanishka. Greco-Bactrian legend:
Shaonanoshao Kanishki Koshano
"King of Kings, Kanishka the Kushan".
British Museum.
Gold coin of Kanishka I with Greek legend and Hellenistic divinity Helios. (c. 120 AD).
Obverse: Kanishka standing, clad in heavy Kushan coat and long boots, flames emanating from shoulders, holding a standard in his left hand, and making a sacrifice over an altar. Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ "[coin] of Kanishka, king of kings".
Reverse: Standing Helios in Hellenistic style, forming a benediction gesture with the right hand. Legend in Greek script: ΗΛΙΟΣ Helios. Kanishka monogram (tamgha) to the left.
Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c.120 AD).
Obv: Kanishka standing.., clad in heavy Kushan coat and long boots, flames emanating from shoulders, holding standard in his left hand, and making a sacrifice over an altar. Kushan-language legend in Greek script (with the addition of the Kushan Ϸ "sh" letter): ϷΑΟΝΑΝΟϷΑΟ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΙ ΚΟϷΑΝΟ ("Shaonanoshao Kanishki Koshano"): "King of Kings, Kanishka the Kushan".
Rev: Standing Buddha in Hellenistic style, forming the gesture of "no fear" (abhaya mudra) with his right hand, and holding a pleat of his robe in his left hand. Legend in Greek script: ΒΟΔΔΟ "Boddo", for the Buddha. Kanishka monogram (tamgha) to the right.
Depiction of the Buddha envelopped in a mandorla in Kanishka's coinage. The mandorla is normally considered as a late evolution in Gandhara art.
Depictions of the "Shakyamuni Buddha" (with legend ϷΑΚΑΜΑΝΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ "Shakamano Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage.
Depictions of "Maitreya" (with legend ΜΕΤΡΑΓΟ ΒΟΔΔΟ "Metrago Boddo") in Kanishka's coinage.
Kanishka inaugurates Mahayana Buddhism
Coin of Kanishka with the Bodhisattva Maitreya "Metrago Boudo".
The Ahin Posh stupa was dedicated in the 2nd century CE and contained coins of Kaniska
Kushan territories (full line) and maximum extent of Kushan dominions under Kanishka (dotted line), according to the Rabatak inscription.<ref>"The Rabatak inscription claims that in the year 1 Kanishka I's authority was proclaimed in India, in all the satrapies and in different cities like Koonadeano (Kundina), Ozeno (Ujjain), Kozambo (Kausambi), Zagedo (Saketa), Palabotro (Pataliputra) and Ziri-Tambo (Janjgir-Champa). These cities lay to the east and south of Mathura, up to which locality Wima had already carried his victorious arm. Therefore they must have been captured or subdued by Kanishka I himself." Ancient Indian Inscriptions, S. R. Goyal, p. 93. See also the analysis of Sims-Williams and J. Cribb, who had a central role in the decipherment: "A new Bactrian inscription of Kanishka the Great", in Silk Road Art and Archaeology No. 4, 1995–1996. Also see, Mukherjee, B. N. "The Great Kushanan Testament", Indian Museum Bulletin.</ref>
Probable statue of Kanishka, Surkh Kotal, 2nd century CE. Kabul Museum.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Lo Muzio|first1=Ciro|title=Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)|journal=Bulletin of the Asia Institute|date=2012|volume=22|pages=189–206|url=}}</ref>
Bronze coin of Kanishka, found in Khotan, modern China.
Samatata coinage of king Vira Jadamarah, in imitation of the Kushan coinage of Kanishka I. Bengal, circa 2nd-3rd century CE.<ref name="Samatata coin">{{cite web|title=Samatata coin|url=|website=British Museum}}</ref>
Kosambi Bodhisattva, inscribed "Year 2 of Kanishka".<ref>Early History of Kausambi p.xxi</ref>
Bala Bodhisattva, Sarnath, inscribed "Year 3 of Kanishka".<ref>Epigraphia Indica 8 p.179</ref>
"Kimbell seated Buddha", with inscription "year 4 of Kanishka" (131 CE).<ref name="Kimbell">Seated Buddha with inscription starting with Gupta ashoka m.svgGupta ashoka haa.jpgGupta allahabad raa.jpgGupta ashoka j.svg{{sub|Gupta ashoka sya.svg}} Gupta ashoka kaa.svg{{sup|Gupta ashoka nni.jpg}}{{sub|Gupta ashoka ssk.jpgGupta ashoka sya.svg}} {{sup|Gupta ashoka sam.jpg}}<big><big>𑁕</big></big> Maharajasya Kanishkasya Sam 4 "Year 4 of the Great King Kanishka" in {{cite web|title=Seated Buddha with Two Attendants|url=||publisher=Kimbell Art Museum|language=en}}</ref><ref name="GPK">"The Buddhist Triad, from Haryana or Mathura, Year 4 of Kaniska (ad 82). Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth." in {{cite book|last1=Museum (Singapore)|first1=Asian Civilisations|last2=Krishnan|first2=Gauri Parimoo|title=The Divine Within: Art & Living Culture of India & South Asia|date=2007|publisher=World Scientific Pub|isbn=9789810567057|page=113|url=|language=en}}</ref> Another similar statue has "Year 32 of Kanishka".<ref>{{cite book|last1=Behrendt|first1=Kurt A.|title=The Art of Gandhara in the Metropolitan Museum of Art|date=2007|publisher=Metropolitan Museum of Art|isbn=978-1-58839-224-4|page=48, Fig. 18|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Gandhara Buddhist Triad from Sahr-i-Bahlol, circa 132 CE, similar to the dated Brussels Buddha.<ref name="GF">{{cite journal|last1=FUSSMAN|first1=Gérard|title=Documents Epigraphiques Kouchans|journal=Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient|date=1974|volume=61|pages=54–57|doi=10.3406/befeo.1974.5193|issn=0336-1519|jstor=43732476 }}</ref> Peshawar Museum.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Rhi|first1=Juhyung|title=Identifying Several Visual Types of Gandharan Buddha Images. Archives of Asian Art 58 (2008).|pages=53–56|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=The Classical Art Research Centre|first1=University of Oxford|title=Problems of Chronology in Gandhāran Art: Proceedings of the First International Workshop of the Gandhāra Connections Project, University of Oxford, 23rd-24th March, 2017|date=2018|publisher=Archaeopress|page=45, notes 28, 29|url=}}</ref>
Image of a Nāga between two Nāgīs, inscribed in "the year 8 of Emperor Kanishka". 135 CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Sircar|first1=Dineschandra|title=Studies in the Religious Life of Ancient and Medieval India|date=1971|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass Publ.|isbn=978-81-208-2790-5|url=|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Sastri|first1=H. krishna|title=Epigraphia Indica Vol-17|date=1923|pages=11–15|url=}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Luders|first1=Heinrich|title=Mathura Inscriptions|date=1961|pages=148–149|url=}}</ref>
Buddha from Loriyan Tangai with inscription mentionning the "year 318", thought to be 143 CE.<ref name="PC">{{cite book|last1=Rhi|first1=Juhyung|title=Problems of Chronology in Gandharan. Positionning Gandharan Buddhas in Chronology|date=2017|publisher=Archaeopress Archaeology|location=Oxford|pages=35–51|url=}}{{free access}}</ref>
A Buddha from Loriyan Tangai from the same period.

The main capital of his empire was located at Puruṣapura (Peshawar) in Gandhara, with another major capital at Mathura.

Sikh Empire

State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Nawab Baghel Singh
The expanding empire in 1809 CE. The Cis-Sutlej states are visible south of the Sutlej river
Ranjit Singh holding court in 1838 CE
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque
Ranjit Singh, {{Circa|1830}}.<ref>Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841)</ref>
{{center|1=Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.}}
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass

It was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital; Multan, also in Punjab; Peshawar; and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849.

Durrani Empire

Afghan empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and spanned parts of Central Asia, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia.

The Afghan Empire at its height under Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1761
City of Kandahar, its principal bazaar and citadel, as seen from the Nakkara Khauna
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his coalition decisively defeat the Maratha Confederacy, during the Third Battle of Panipat and restored the Mughal Empire to Shah Alam II.
The Bala Hissar fort in Peshawar was one of the royal residences of the Durrani kings.
The main street in the bazaar at Kabul, 1842 James Atkinson watercolour painting.

Following Afshar's death in June 1747, Ahmad secured Afghanistan by taking Kandahar, Ghazni, Kabul, and Peshawar.

Valley of Peshawar

Broad valley situated in the central part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Peshawar valley seen from Ranigat.

It has a mean elevation of 345 m. The valley takes its name from the city of Peshawar, which is situated at the western part of the valley close to Warsak Dam.


Name of an ancient region located in present-day north-west Pakistan and parts of north-east Afghanistan.

19th century map of northern Gandhara.
A modern satellite view of Gandhara (October 2020).
Cremation urn, Gandhara grave culture, Swat Valley, c. 1200 BC.
Female spouted figure, terracotta, Charsadda, Gandhara, 3rd to 1st century BCE Victoria and Albert Museum
Mother Goddess (fertility divinity), possibly derived from the Indus Valley Civilization, terracotta, Sar Dheri, Gandhara, 1st century BC, Victoria and Albert Museum
Kingdoms and cities of ancient Buddhism, with Gandhara located in the northwest of this region, during the time of the Buddha (c. 500 BC).
Xerxes I tomb, Gandāra soldier, circa 470 BC.
Athens coin (c. 500/490–485 BCE) discovered in Pushkalavati. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east. Such coins were circulating in the area as currency, at least as far as the Indus, during the reign of the Achaemenids.
"Victory coin" of Alexander the Great, minted in Babylon c. 322 BC, following his campaigns in Bactria and the Indus Valley. Obverse: Alexander being crowned by Nike. Reverse: Alexander attacking king Porus on his elephant. Silver. British Museum.
Coin of Early Gandhara Janapada: AR Shatamana and one-eighth Shatamana (round), Taxila-Gandhara region, c. 600–300 BCE
A monetary silver coin of the satrapy of Gandhara about 500–400 BCE. Obv: Gandhara symbol representing 6 weapons with one point between two weapons; At the bottom of the point, a hollow moon. Rev: Empty. Dimensions: 14 mm Weight: 1.4 g.
Greco-Buddhist statue of standing Buddha, Gandhara (1st–2nd century), Tokyo National Museum
Marine deities, Gandhara.
Casket of Kanishka the Great, with Buddhist motifs
Head of a bodhisattva, c. 4th century CE
The Seated Buddha, dating from 300 to 500 AD, was found near Jamal Garhi, and is now on display at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco.
Gandhara fortified city depicted in a Buddhist relief
Sharing of the Buddha's relics, above a Gandhara fortified city.
Many stupas, such as the Shingerdar stupa in Ghalegay, are scattered throughout the region near Peshawar.
Maitreya Bodhisattva, Gautama Buddha, and Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. 2nd–3rd century CE, Gandhāra
Bronze statue of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. Fearlessness mudrā. 3rd century CE, Gandhāra
Greco-Buddhist Portraits from the site of Hadda, Gandhara, 3rd century, Guimet Museum
Vasubandhu: Wood, 186 cm height, about 1208, Kofukuji Temple, Nara, Japan
Standing Bodhisattva (1st–2nd century)
Buddha head (2nd century)
Buddha head (4th–6th century)
Buddha in acanthus capital
The Greek god Atlas, supporting a Buddhist monument, Hadda
The Bodhisattva Maitreya (2nd century)
Wine-drinking and music, Hadda (1st–2nd century)
Maya's white elephant dream (2nd–3rd century)
The birth of Siddharta (2nd–3rd century)
The Great Departure from the Palace (2nd–3rd century)
The end of ascetism (2nd–3rd century)
The Buddha preaching at the Deer Park in Sarnath (2nd–3rd century)
Scene of the life of the Buddha (2nd–3rd century)
The death of the Buddha, or parinirvana (2nd–3rd century)
A sculpture from Hadda, (3rd century)
The Bodhisattva and Chandeka, Hadda (5th century)
The Buddha and Vajrapani under the guise of Herakles
Hellenistic decorative scrolls from Hadda, Afghanistan
Hellenistic scene, Gandhara (1st century)
A stone plate (1st century).
"Laughing boy" from Hadda
Bodhisattva seated in meditation

Famed for its unique Gandharan style of art which is heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Hellenistic styles, Gandhara attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century CE under the Kushan Empire, who had their seasonal capitals at Bagram (Kapisi) and Peshawar (Puruṣapura).

Khyber Pass

Mountain pass in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, on the border with Afghanistan (Nangarhar Province).

The Khyber Pass with the fortress of Ali Masjid in 1848
Afghan chiefs and a British political officer posed at Jamrud Fort at the mouth of the Khyber Pass in 1878
The British Indian Army's elephant battery of heavy artillery along the Khyber Pass at Campbellpur, 1895
Bab-e-Khyber, the entrance gate of the Khyber Pass
The pass was serviced by the Khyber Pass Railway, currently closed.
Khyber Pass Gateway southbound towards Peshawar
Typical Pakistani transport truck and passengers
Washed out bridge
The Khyber Railway. With a Pakistan Railways HGS 2-8-0 at front and rear a charter train climbs the Khyber Pass through a series of zig-zags to gain height
An advertisement card from 1910 depicting Khaiber Pass
A camp of the British Indian Army near the Khyber Pass (c. 1920)
Mountain passes of Afghanistan

The Khyber Pass Railway from Jamrud, near Peshawar, to the Afghan border near Landi Kotal was opened in 1925.



Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan
A map of Pashtun tribes
Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province who are known in Pashto language as Kuchian. They migrate from region to region depending on the season (transhumance).
The Arachosia Satrapy and the Pactyan people during the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE
Head of a Saka warrior
Pactyans, present day Pashtunistan. The Oriental Empires about 600 B.C., Historical Atlas by William Shepherd (1923-26)
Heads of two males, discovered in Hadda (Pashto: هډه) 10km south of Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Dated 3-4th century CE.
Bactrian document in the Greek script from the 4th century mentioning the word Afghan (αβγανανο): "To Ormuzd Bunukan from Bredag Watanan, the chief of the Afghans"
Afghan Amir Sher Ali Khan (in the center with his son) and his delegation in Ambala, near Lahore, in 1869
Leader of the non-violent Khudai Khidmatgar, also referred to as "the Red shirts" movement, Bacha Khan, standing with Mohandas Gandhi
Malala Yousafzai, a Pashtana, recipient of 2014 Nobel Peace Prize
American diplomat Zalmay Khalilzad with Taliban officials Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai and Suhail Shaheen
President Hamid Karzai and Abdul Rahim Wardak
From left to right: Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai; Anwar ul-Haq Ahady; and Abdullah Abdullah
Imran Khan, Pakistani cricketer-turned-politician and former Prime Minister, belongs to the Niazi tribe.
Pashtun-inhabited areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan (green) in 1980
Ethnolinguistic groups in Pakistan and Afghanistan in 1982
Pashtun female festive dress in Faryab, Afghanistan
Khattak dance involves running and whirling. It is mainly performed in and around the Peshawar area of Pakistan.
Mahmud Tarzi, son of Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi, became the pioneer of Afghan journalism for publishing the first newspaper Seraj al Akhbar.
Shahid Afridi, former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team
Buzkashi in Afghanistan
The Bodhisattva and Chandeka, Hadda, 5th century CE
The Friday Mosque in Kandahar. Adjacent to it is the Shrine of the Cloak(also known as Kirka Sharif), and the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the 18th century Pashtun conqueror who became the founding father of Afghanistan.
Men doing Islamic salat (praying) outside in the open in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan
Two Pashtane (Pashtun women) from Kuch i tribe pictured in 1967 on the Helmand river (د هلمند سيند)
Queen Soraya of Afghanistan
Zarine Khan, Indian model and actress in Bollywood films

Metropolitan centres within Pashtun dominated areas include Kandahar, Quetta, Jalalabad, Mardan, Mingora and Peshawar.


Town and headquarters of Charsadda District, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Buddhist statuary obtained in archaeological excavation from Charsadda is the great tourist attraction
Buddhist statues obtained in archaeological excavation from Charsadda is the great tourist attraction

Located in the Valley of Peshawar, Charsadda lies about 29 km from the provincial capital of Peshawar at an altitude of 276 m. The total area of Charsadda District measures about 996 square Km. The district is geographically organized into two primary parts: Hashtnagar (Pashto: Ashnaghar) and Do Aaba (Pashto: Duaba).

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Province of Pakistan.

Gold coin of Kushan king Kanishka II, featuring lord Shiva (200–220 AD)
Approximate boundaries of the Gandharan Empire; Alexander's Army also passed through this area centered on the modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan
Relics of the Buddha from the ruins of the Kanishka stupa at Peshawar – now in Mandalay, Myanmar
Asia in 565 CE, showing the Shahi kingdoms, centered on modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.
Bacha Khan with Mahatma Gandhi
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan
Northern parts of the province feature forests and dramatic mountain scenery, as in Swat District.
Ghabral, Swat Valley
A map of the districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with their names. Colors correspond to divisions.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's dominance: forestry
University of Peshawar
Islamia College University
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

The ancient region of Peukelaotis (modern Hashtnagar, 17 mi north-west of Peshawar) submitted to the Greek invasion, leading to Nicanor, a Macedonian, being appointed satrap of the country west of the Indus, which includes the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.


7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator.

Painting of Xuanzang. Japan, Kamakura Period (14th century).
Statue of Xuanzang in the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an
Xuanzang's former residence in Chenhe Village near Luoyang, Henan.
Xuanzang describes colossal Buddhas carved into the rocks of Bamiyan region (above: 19th-century sketch, destroyed by the Taliban in 1990s).
Reconstructed route of Xuanzang over 629–645 CE through India. Along with Nalanda in Bihar, he visited locations that are now in Kashmir, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and Bangladesh.
Xuanzang describes thousands of monasteries and stupas in northwest India. Above: the ruins of Dharmarajika stupa, Taxila.
Xuanzang describes Ganges river with blue waters, who heretics believe carries "waters of blessedness", and in which a dip leads to expiation of sins.
Xuanzang describes Prayaga as a great city where Ganges and Yamuna meet, one where people ritually fast, bathe and give away alms.
Xuanzang visited Sravasti site (above), the place where the Buddha spent most of his time after enlightenment.
Statue of Xuanzang at Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang
Xuanzang Temple in Taiwan
An illustration of Xuanzang from Journey to the West, a fictional account of travels.
Golden statue of Xuanzang. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an
Xuanzang Memorial Hall in Nalanda, Bihar, India.
thumb|Statue of Xuanzang. Great Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an.
Statue of Xuanzang in front of Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an

On its east, it is bordered by the Indus river, and its capital is Purusapura (now Peshawar, Pakistan).