Peshwa

Extent of the Maratha Confederacy, 1795
Statue of Balaji Vishwanath, the first Peshwa from the Bhat family, at Shrivardhan, Raigad district, Maharashtra, India.
Statue of Bajirao I, the second Peshwa from the Bhat family, outside Shaniwar Wada, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Shaniwar Wada's Delhi Gate. It was the seat of the Peshwas at Pune, Maharashtra, India.
His Highness Shrimant Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa or Madhav Rao II Narayan and his Prime minister Nana Phadnavis, with two attendants at Pune.

The appointed (later becoming 'hereditary') Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent.

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Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression

Baji Rao I

Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression
Baji Rao I's handwriting in Modi script.
Troop movements of Baji Rao I and Asaf Jah I (Nizam-ul-Mulk) in the Battle of Palkhed
Equestrian statue of Peshwa Baji Rao I outside Shaniwar Wada, Pune
Seal of Bajirao I
The Shaniwar Wada fortress in Pune was built as the seat of the Peshwa rulers during Baji Rao's reign.

Baji Rao I (18 August 1700 – 28 April 1740), born as Visaji, also known as Bajirao Ballal (Pronunciation: [bad͡ʒiɾaːʋ bəlːaːɭ]), was the 7th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage

Chitpavan

Hindu Maharashtrian Brahmin community inhabiting Konkan, the coastal region of the state of Maharashtra.

Hindu Maharashtrian Brahmin community inhabiting Konkan, the coastal region of the state of Maharashtra.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage
Peshwa Madhavrao II with Nana Fadnavis and attendants, at Pune in 1792
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Initially working as messengers and spies in the late seventeenth century, the community came into prominence during the 18th century when the heirs of Peshwa from the Bhat family of Balaji Vishwanath became the de facto rulers of the Maratha empire.

Madhavarao Tanjavarkar (born 1828, died 4 April 1891), a descendant of Deshastha Brahmins with the last name Tanjavarkar or Thanjavurkar

Deshastha Brahmin

Hindu Brahmin subcaste mainly from the Indian state of Maharashtra and northern area of the state of Karnataka.

Hindu Brahmin subcaste mainly from the Indian state of Maharashtra and northern area of the state of Karnataka.

Madhavarao Tanjavarkar (born 1828, died 4 April 1891), a descendant of Deshastha Brahmins with the last name Tanjavarkar or Thanjavurkar
Divisions of Maharashtra. The blue region is an approximate indication of the Desh.
Tatya Tope's Soldiery
Painting of 1st Diwan of Mysore Kingdom, Mir Miran Purnaiah by Irish painter Thomas Hickey
A Deshastha woman from the 1970s in her traditional attire, watering the holy basil plant (Tulsi at the Tulsi Vrindavan (plinth) in her yard
A typical Deshastha household Shrine called Deoghar.
Gudi Padwa Gudi or Victory pole
Tilgul is exchanged by Deshasthas on Makar Sankaranti. The centre shows sugarcoated sesame seeds surrounded by laddus of tilgul or sesame jaggery.
The main entrance to the Vithoba temple in Pandharpur

In historic times a large number of Deshasthas held many prominent positions such as Peshwa, Diwan, Deshpande (district accountants), Deshmukh, Patil, Gadkari, and Desai.

The gate of Rajwada, royal palace of the Holkar dynasty, Indore

Holkar

Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India.

Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India.

The gate of Rajwada, royal palace of the Holkar dynasty, Indore
Shrimant Bhushansinh Raje Holkar celebrating the titular coronation of Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar on January 6 at Fort Wafgaon(Maharastra)
Fort Ahilya in Maheshwar
A Statue of Ahilyabai Holkar at Datta Temple
Yashwantrao Holkar.
Tukojirao Holkar II, Indore, from a drawing by Mr. W. Carpenter, Jun.," from the Illustrated London News, 1857
Tukojirao Holkar III Maharaja Holkar of Indore
A silver rupee of Shivajirao Holkar 1886–1903, minted at Indore in Vikram Samvat 1948 (1891)

The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, and quickly rose to the rank of Subedar.

Maratha Sardar Ranoji Scindia

Scindia

Hindu Maratha dynasty that ruled the erstwhile State of Gwalior.

Hindu Maratha dynasty that ruled the erstwhile State of Gwalior.

Maratha Sardar Ranoji Scindia
The Maharaja of Gwalior Before His Palace
Shinde Chhatri, Wanawdi, Pune: A memorial dedicated to Mahadji Shinde
Mahadaji Shinde was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha power in North India after the Battle of Panipat in 1761

Peshwa Baji Rao's career saw the strengthening of the Maratha Empire.

Indian camp scene

Third Anglo-Maratha War

The final and decisive conflict between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.

The final and decisive conflict between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.

Indian camp scene
Map of India after the Second Anglo-Maratha War, 1805
Mountstuart Elphinstone
Ruins of the old palace at Raigad fort
The Marquess of Hastings
Battle of Khadki, 1817
Bajirao II
Location of Malwa in an 1823 depiction of India. Malwa was the headquarters of some of the Pindaris in the early 19th century
Sitabuldi Fort today
Map of India after the Third Anglo-Maratha War, 1819
Asirgarh Fort
The Nassak Diamond was seized from the Peshwa by the British and sent to London

Peshwa Baji Rao II's forces, supported by those of Mudhoji II Bhonsle of Nagpur and Malharrao Holkar III of Indore, rose against the East India Company.

c. 1770 Faizabad-style painting of the Third Battle of Panipat; the centre of the image is dominated by the twin arcs of the lines of guns firing at each other with smoke and destruction in between.

Third Battle of Panipat

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the invading army of the Durrani Afghan Empire.

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the invading army of the Durrani Afghan Empire.

c. 1770 Faizabad-style painting of the Third Battle of Panipat; the centre of the image is dominated by the twin arcs of the lines of guns firing at each other with smoke and destruction in between.
Extent of the Maratha Empire, 1760
Sadashivrao Bhau
Engraving of a Maratha soldier by James Forbes.
Portrait of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Plan of the Third Battle of Panipat based on Kashi raja (Casi Raja) Pandit's account
Mahadaji Shinde restored Maratha domination over northern India, within a decade after the war.
Map of India in 1765, before the fall of Nawabs and Princely states nominally allied to the emperor (mainly in Green).

The Maratha army was led by Sadashivrao Bhau, who was third-highest authority of the Maratha Empire after the Chhatrapati and the Peshwa.

Maratha Empire

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
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Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

The empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de jure, but the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas after Chhatrapati Shahu I's reign.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage

Maratha Peshwa and Generals from Bhat Family

Prominent Indian Chitpavan Brahmin family who dominated India for around 100 years in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

Prominent Indian Chitpavan Brahmin family who dominated India for around 100 years in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage

Most of the members in this family were the Peshwas (prime ministers) in the Peshwa Era of the Maratha Empire, and Peshwa later became their family name.

Moropant Trimbak Pingle

Moropant Trimbak Pingle (1620–1683), was the peshwa of the Maratha Empire, serving on Shivaji's Ashta Pradhan (Council of Eight Ministers).