Peshwa

Extent of the Maratha Confederacy, 1795
Statue of Balaji Vishwanath, the first Peshwa from the Bhat family, at Shrivardhan, Raigad district, Maharashtra, India.
Statue of Bajirao I, the second Peshwa from the Bhat family, outside Shaniwar Wada, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Shaniwar Wada's Delhi Gate. It was the seat of the Peshwas at Pune, Maharashtra, India.
His Highness Shrimant Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa or Madhav Rao II Narayan and his Prime minister Nana Phadnavis, with two attendants at Pune.

The appointed (later becoming 'hereditary') Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent.

- Peshwa

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Maratha Empire

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

Confederacy that came to dominate a large portion of early modern India in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
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Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

The empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de jure, but the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas after Chhatrapati Shahu I's reign.

c. 1770 Faizabad-style painting of the Third Battle of Panipat; the centre of the image is dominated by the twin arcs of the lines of guns firing at each other with smoke and destruction in between.

Third Battle of Panipat

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the invading army of the Durrani Afghan Empire.

The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the invading army of the Durrani Afghan Empire.

c. 1770 Faizabad-style painting of the Third Battle of Panipat; the centre of the image is dominated by the twin arcs of the lines of guns firing at each other with smoke and destruction in between.
Extent of the Maratha Empire, 1760
Sadashivrao Bhau
Engraving of a Maratha soldier by James Forbes.
Portrait of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Plan of the Third Battle of Panipat based on Kashi raja (Casi Raja) Pandit's account
Mahadaji Shinde restored Maratha domination over northern India, within a decade after the war.
Map of India in 1765, before the fall of Nawabs and Princely states nominally allied to the emperor (mainly in Green).

The Maratha army was led by Sadashivrao Bhau, who was third-highest authority of the Maratha Empire after the Chhatrapati and the Peshwa.

Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression

Baji Rao I

Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression
Baji Rao I's handwriting in Modi script.
Troop movements of Baji Rao I and Asaf Jah I (Nizam-ul-Mulk) in the Battle of Palkhed
Equestrian statue of Peshwa Baji Rao I outside Shaniwar Wada, Pune
Seal of Bajirao I
The Shaniwar Wada fortress in Pune was built as the seat of the Peshwa rulers during Baji Rao's reign.

Baji Rao I (18 August 1700 – 28 April 1740), born as Visaji, also known as Bajirao Ballal (Pronunciation: [bad͡ʒiɾaːʋ bəlːaːɭ]), was the 7th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.

Portrait of Nana Phadnavis by John Thomas Seton

Nana Fadnavis

Portrait of Nana Phadnavis by John Thomas Seton
Nana Fadnavis
Peshwa Madhav Rao Narayan with Nana Fadnavis
Capture of Nana Fadnavis
Rear entrance to Nana Phadanvis' house (Nana phadanvis wada), which is still preserved today in the same condition as when Nana built it in 1780. Location: Menawali near Wai in Satara district of Maharashtra
Nana Fadnavis Wada

Nana Phadnavis (Pronunciation: [naːna pʰəɖɳəʋiːs, fəɖ-]; also Fadanvis and Furnuwees and abbreviated as Phadnis) (February 12, 1742 – March 13, 1800), born Balaji Janardan Bhanu, was an influential minister and statesman of the Maratha Empire during the Peshwa administration in Pune, India.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum

Shivaji

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan.

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum
Shivneri Fort
South India at the turn of the 17th century
An early-20th-century painting by Sawlaram Haldankar of Shivaji fighting the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan
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A 20th century depiction of Shivaji's surprise attack on Mughal general Shaista Khan in Pune by M.V. Dhurandhar
Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar
20th century depiction by M.V. Dhurandhar of Raja Shivaji at the court of Mughal Badshah, Aurangzeb.
Statue of Shivaji opposite Gateway of India in South Mumbai
20th century depiction of the Coronation Durbar with over 100 characters depicted in attendance by M.V. Dhurandhar
Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him
Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji to reside, is now a place of pilgrimage.
Royal seal of Shivaji
Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad
Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1758
An early-20th-century painting by M. V. Dhurandhar of Shivaji and Baji Prabhu at Pawan Khind
A miniature Bronze statue of Shivaji Maharaj in the collection of the Shri Bhavani Museum of Aundh
Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort
A replica of Raigad Fort built by children on occasion of Diwali as a tribute to Shivaji.

Early in his reign, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath and later his descendants, as Peshwas (prime ministers) of the Maratha Empire.

Balaji Vishwanath

A painting of Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa in the Peshwa Memorial at the Parvati Hill temple complex, Pune
An information plaque describing Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa, a part of the Peshwa Memorial at Shrivardhan, Konkan

Balaji Vishwanath Bhat (1662–1720) was the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas hailing from the Bhat family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century.

Sadashivrao Bhau

Son of Chimaji Appa (younger brother of Bajirao I) and Rakhmabai (Pethe family) and the nephew of Bajirao Peshwa.

Son of Chimaji Appa (younger brother of Bajirao I) and Rakhmabai (Pethe family) and the nephew of Bajirao Peshwa.

Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Maratha Confederacy at its zenith in 1760 (yellow areas)
A portrait of Sadashivrao Bhau Peshwa, a part of Peshwa Memorial in Pune, India
An information plaque describing Sadashivrao Bhau. It is a part of The Peshwa Memorial atop Parvati Hill in Pune, India
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his coalition decisively defeat the Maratha Confederacy, during the Third Battle of Panipat.

He was the son of Peshwa Baji Rao's brother Chimaji Appa.

Indian camp scene

Third Anglo-Maratha War

The final and decisive conflict between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.

The final and decisive conflict between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.

Indian camp scene
Map of India after the Second Anglo-Maratha War, 1805
Mountstuart Elphinstone
Ruins of the old palace at Raigad fort
The Marquess of Hastings
Battle of Khadki, 1817
Bajirao II
Location of Malwa in an 1823 depiction of India. Malwa was the headquarters of some of the Pindaris in the early 19th century
Sitabuldi Fort today
Map of India after the Third Anglo-Maratha War, 1819
Asirgarh Fort
The Nassak Diamond was seized from the Peshwa by the British and sent to London

Peshwa Baji Rao II's forces, supported by those of Mudhoji II Bhonsle of Nagpur and Malharrao Holkar III of Indore, rose against the East India Company.

Mahadaji Shinde by James Wales

Mahadaji Shinde

Mahadaji Shinde (b.

Mahadaji Shinde (b.

Mahadaji Shinde by James Wales
Mahadaji Scindia entertaining British officers with a nautch
Shinde Chhatri, Wanawdi, Pune: A memorial dedicated to Mahadji Shinde

Mahadaji was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha power in North India after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, and rose to become a trusted lieutenant of the Peshwa, leader of the Maratha Empire.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage

Chitpavan

Hindu Maharashtrian Brahmin community inhabiting Konkan, the coastal region of the state of Maharashtra.

Hindu Maharashtrian Brahmin community inhabiting Konkan, the coastal region of the state of Maharashtra.

Chitpavan Brahmins practicing Bodan, a rite performed on important occasions like birth or marriage
Peshwa Madhavrao II with Nana Fadnavis and attendants, at Pune in 1792
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Initially working as messengers and spies in the late seventeenth century, the community came into prominence during the 18th century when the heirs of Peshwa from the Bhat family of Balaji Vishwanath became the de facto rulers of the Maratha empire.