A report on Shivaji and Peshwa

Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum
Shivneri Fort
Extent of the Maratha Confederacy, 1795
South India at the turn of the 17th century
Statue of Balaji Vishwanath, the first Peshwa from the Bhat family, at Shrivardhan, Raigad district, Maharashtra, India.
An early-20th-century painting by Sawlaram Haldankar of Shivaji fighting the Bijapuri general Afzal Khan
Statue of Bajirao I, the second Peshwa from the Bhat family, outside Shaniwar Wada, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Shaniwar Wada's Delhi Gate. It was the seat of the Peshwas at Pune, Maharashtra, India.
A 20th century depiction of Shivaji's surprise attack on Mughal general Shaista Khan in Pune by M.V. Dhurandhar
His Highness Shrimant Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa or Madhav Rao II Narayan and his Prime minister Nana Phadnavis, with two attendants at Pune.
Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar
20th century depiction by M.V. Dhurandhar of Raja Shivaji at the court of Mughal Badshah, Aurangzeb.
Statue of Shivaji opposite Gateway of India in South Mumbai
20th century depiction of the Coronation Durbar with over 100 characters depicted in attendance by M.V. Dhurandhar
Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him
Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji to reside, is now a place of pilgrimage.
Royal seal of Shivaji
Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad
Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1758
An early-20th-century painting by M. V. Dhurandhar of Shivaji and Baji Prabhu at Pawan Khind
A miniature Bronze statue of Shivaji Maharaj in the collection of the Shri Bhavani Museum of Aundh
Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort
A replica of Raigad Fort built by children on occasion of Diwali as a tribute to Shivaji.

All Peshwas during the rule of Shivaji, Sambhaji and Rajaram belonged to Deshastha Brahmin community.

- Peshwa

Early in his reign, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath and later his descendants, as Peshwas (prime ministers) of the Maratha Empire.

- Shivaji
Shivaji's portrait (1680s) from the collection of British Museum

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Maratha Empire

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Early modern Indian confederation that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.

Early modern Indian confederation that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century.

The Maratha Empire in 1758 with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Mughal Empire as its vassals
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 (Yellow)
Maratha kingdom in 1680 (yellow)
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath
Peshwa Baji Rao I
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Peshwa Madhavrao I
Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India
A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.
Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British
Battle of Assaye during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British
Maratha king of Gwalior at his palace
Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.
Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship
Arms of Maratha
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Thanjavur Maratha palace
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1759 (orange)
Maratha Empire in 1760 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1765 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1795 (yellow)
Maratha Empire in 1805
Maratha Princely States in 1823

Maratha rule formally began in 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji as the Chhatrapati (Marathi: "Keeper of the Umbrella").

The empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de jure, but the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas after Chhatrapati Shahu I's reign.

Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression

Baji Rao I

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Portrait of Baji Rao I, an artist's impression
Baji Rao I's handwriting in Modi script.
Troop movements of Baji Rao I and Asaf Jah I (Nizam-ul-Mulk) in the Battle of Palkhed
Equestrian statue of Peshwa Baji Rao I outside Shaniwar Wada, Pune
Seal of Bajirao I
The Shaniwar Wada fortress in Pune was built as the seat of the Peshwa rulers during Baji Rao's reign.

Baji Rao I (18 August 1700 – 28 April 1740), born as Visaji, also known as Bajirao Ballal (Pronunciation: [bad͡ʒiɾaːʋ bəlːaːɭ]), was the 7th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.

Baji Rao was inspired by the lives of Shivaji, Ramchandra Pant Amatya and Santaji Ghorpade.

Balaji Vishwanath

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A portrait of Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa 
 Peshwa Memorial, Parvati Hill, Pune, Maharashtra, India
A painting of Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa in the Peshwa Memorial at the Parvati Hill temple complex, Pune
An information plaque describing Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa, a part of the Peshwa Memorial at Shrivardhan, Konkan
statue of Balaji Vishwanath in Shrivardhan, Maharashtra.

Balaji Vishwanath Bhat (1662–1720) was the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas hailing from the Bhat family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century.

Since the death of Shivaji, his two sons Sambhaji and Rajaram continued the Maratha war against the Mughal Empire. Emperor Aurangzeb entered the Deccan in 1686, hoping to put an end to the fledgling Maratha state. Aurangzeb spent the next 27 years in the Deccan in ceaseless warfare against the Marathas. Despite the cruel executions of Sambhaji and early death of Rajaram, Rajaram's widow Tarabai continued the resistance while Sambhaji's son Shahu was captured at a very young age and held captive of the Mughals. Aurangzeb died at Ahmednagar in 1707 at the age of eighty-eight, with the Mughal armies exhausted and the treasury empty. The ensuing war of succession in the Mughal Empire resulted in accession of the aged Prince Mu'azzam, who ascended the Mughal throne under the title of Bahadur Shah

Marathi language

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Indo-Aryan language predominantly spoken by Marathi people in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Indo-Aryan language predominantly spoken by Marathi people in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

981 A.D. Marathi inscription at the foot of Bahubali statue at Jain temple in Shravanabelagola is the earliest known Marathi inscription found. It was derived from Prakrit language.
Marathi inscription inside Brihadisvara temple complex, Thanjavur
The popular Marathi language newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006
Marathi language speakers in India (Census 2011)
Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha is the main regulator of Marathi
Modi script was used to write Marathi
An effort to conserve the "Modi Script" under India Post's My Stamp scheme. Here, the word 'Marathi' is printed in the "Modi Script".
Marathi neon signboard at Maharashtra Police headquarters in Mumbai.
Map of Marathi language in India (district-wise). Darker shades imply a greater percentage of native speakers of Marathi in each district.

Marathi gained prominence with the rise of the Maratha Empire beginning with the reign of Shivaji.

Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa period.

Indian camp scene

Third Anglo-Maratha War

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The final and decisive conflict between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.

The final and decisive conflict between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.

Indian camp scene
Map of India after the Second Anglo-Maratha War, 1805
Mountstuart Elphinstone
Ruins of the old palace at Raigad fort
The Marquess of Hastings
Battle of Khadki, 1817
Bajirao II
Location of Malwa in an 1823 depiction of India. Malwa was the headquarters of some of the Pindaris in the early 19th century
Sitabuldi Fort today
Map of India after the Third Anglo-Maratha War, 1819
Asirgarh Fort
The Nassak Diamond was seized from the Peshwa by the British and sent to London

Peshwa Baji Rao II's forces, supported by those of Mudhoji II Bhonsle of Nagpur and Malharrao Holkar III of Indore, rose against the East India Company.

The Maratha Empire was founded in 1674 by Shivaji of the Bhosle dynasty.