Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticidespesticidalbio-pesticideschemical pesticidecosmetic pesticidesPlant protection productsAgricultural Chemicalsagricultural pesticides
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.wikipedia
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Molluscicide

molluscicidaleradication of snailskilling the snails
The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, bactericide, insect repellent, animal repellent, antimicrobial, fungicide and disinfectant (antimicrobial).
Molluscicides, also known as snail baits and snail pellets, are pesticides against molluscs, which are usually used in agriculture or gardening, in order to control gastropod pests specifically slugs and snails which damage crops or other valued plants by feeding on them.

Nematicide

nematocidenematicidalnematicides
The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, bactericide, insect repellent, animal repellent, antimicrobial, fungicide and disinfectant (antimicrobial).
A nematicide is a type of chemical pesticide used to kill plant-parasitic nematodes.

Strychnine

strychnine poisoningstrychnine sulfate
These include the pyrethroids, rotenoids, nicotinoids, and a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside.
Strychnine (also or ) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.

Rotenone

rotenoidrotenolone
These include the pyrethroids, rotenoids, nicotinoids, and a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside.
Rotenone is an odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.

Fumigation

fumigantfumigatedfumigate
Pesticides can be classified by target organism (e.g., herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, and pediculicides – see table), chemical structure (e.g., organic, inorganic, synthetic, or biological (biopesticide), although the distinction can sometimes blur), and physical state (e.g. gaseous (fumigant)).
Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.

Silent Spring

book of the same titleThe Silent Spring
Rachel Carson wrote the best-selling book Silent Spring about biological magnification.
The book was published on September 27, 1962, documenting the adverse environmental effects caused by the indiscriminate use of pesticides.

Poison

poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
Most pesticides work by poisoning pests.
Pesticides are one group of substances whose toxicity to various insects and other animals deemed to be pests (e.g., rats and cockroaches) is their prime purpose.

Arsenic

AsAs 2 Arsenate
By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury, and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests.
Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides.

Rachel Carson

CarsonRachael Carson Rachel Carson’s
Rachel Carson wrote the best-selling book Silent Spring about biological magnification.
Late in the 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation, especially some problems that she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides.

Acetylcholinesterase

acetylcholine esteraseacetycholinesteraseacetylcholineesterase
Both operate through inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, allowing acetylcholine to transfer nerve impulses indefinitely and causing a variety of symptoms such as weakness or paralysis.
It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.

Pesticide resistance

insecticide resistanceresistanceherbicide resistance
DDT use is not always effective, as resistance to DDT was identified in Africa as early as 1955, and by 1972 nineteen species of mosquito worldwide were resistant to DDT.
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection AgencyEPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Proper pesticide use decreases these associated risks to a level deemed acceptable by pesticide regulatory agencies such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) of Canada. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA).
The 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides.

Pesticide drift

spray drift[drift of pesticide
Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them.
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.This can lead to damage in human health, environmental contamination, and property damage.

Biopesticide

biological pesticidebiopesticidesbiological insecticide
Pesticides can be classified by target organism (e.g., herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, and pediculicides – see table), chemical structure (e.g., organic, inorganic, synthetic, or biological (biopesticide), although the distinction can sometimes blur), and physical state (e.g. gaseous (fumigant)).
Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships.

DDT

dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanep,p'-DDTDichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
Organochlorine hydrocarbons (e.g., DDT) could be separated into dichlorodiphenylethanes, cyclodiene compounds, and other related compounds.
The book argued that pesticides, including DDT, were poisoning both wildlife and the environment and were endangering human health.

Pest Management Regulatory Agency

federal jurisdictionPMRA (Pest Management Regulatory Agency)
Proper pesticide use decreases these associated risks to a level deemed acceptable by pesticide regulatory agencies such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) of Canada.
PMRA's mission is “To protect the health and environment of Canadians by using modern evidence-based scientific approaches to pesticide regulation, in an open and transparent manner”.

Acaricide

miticideacaricidesacaricidal
Acaricides are pesticides that kill members of the arachnid subclass Acari, which includes ticks and mites.

Bioaccumulation

bioaccumulatebioaccumulativeaccumulate
Their toxicities vary greatly, but they have been phased out because of their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
Plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) have genetic material from other species incorporated into their genetic material (i.e. GM crops). Their use is controversial, especially in many European countries.
A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that GM technology adoption had reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%.

Pesticide residue

pesticide residuespesticide contaminationresidue
Pesticide residue
Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops.

Toxicity class

extremely hazardousToxicity Class Ia
Based on acute toxicity, pesticides are assigned to a Toxicity Class.
Toxicity class refers to a classification system for pesticides that has been created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization.

Crop protection

plant protectioncrop protection formulationscrops
For the global market of crop protection products, market analysts forecast revenues of over 52 billion US$ in 2019.
Pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides

Water pollution

pollutionpollutedwater
Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution, and some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination.
Causes of groundwater pollution include: naturally-occurring (geogenic), on-site sanitation systems, sewage, fertilizers and pesticide, commercial and industrial leaks, hydraulic fracturing, landfill leachate.

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)Federal Insecticide Act of 1910Federal Insecticide and Rodenticide Act
In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA).
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is a United States federal law that set up the basic U.S. system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment.

Sterile insect technique

genetically manipulated sterile mosquitointroduce large numbers of sterile malesIntroducing large numbers of sterile males
Interfering with insects' reproduction can be accomplished by sterilizing males of the target species and releasing them, so that they mate with females but do not produce offspring.
Bushland and Knipling began searching for an alternative to chemical pesticides in the late 1930s when they were working at the United States Department of Agriculture Laboratory in Menard, Texas.