Pesticide drift

spray driftdrift of pesticideherbicide drift
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.This can lead to damage in human health, environmental contamination, and property damage.wikipedia
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Pesticide application

applicationsprayingResponsible use
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.This can lead to damage in human health, environmental contamination, and property damage.
Large droplets have the advantage of being less susceptible to spray drift, but require more water per unit of land covered.

Aerial application

crop dustingcrop dustercropduster
Aerial application
Many countries have severely limited aerial application of pesticides and other products because of environmental and public health hazards like spray drift; most notably, the European Union banned it outright with a few highly restricted exceptions in 2009, effectively ending the practice in all member states.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.This can lead to damage in human health, environmental contamination, and property damage.
Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic planttransgenic plants
Application of herbicides later in the season to protect herbicide-resistant genetically modified plants increases the risk of volatilisation as the temperature is higher and incorporation into the soil impractical.
The request includes plans for avoiding herbicide drift to other crops.

Environmental impact of agriculture

impact the environmentenvironmental consequences of agriculturecommercial agriculture
Environmental impact of agriculture
Pesticide drift

List of environmental issues

environmental issuesconservation issuesenvironmental problems
Intensive farming — Agricultural subsidy • Environmental effects of meat production • Intensive animal farming • Intensive crop farming • Irrigation • Monoculture • Nutrient pollution • Overgrazing • Pesticide drift • Plasticulture • Slash and burn • Tile drainage

Environmental impact of pesticides

pesticide pollutionpesticide risk and impact assessment modelsPesticides
Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them.

Wilding conifer

wilding pineswilding coniferswilding pine
In 2004 a spraying operation by the Department of Conservation at Mid Dome in the Southland Region caused spray drift onto surrounding areas including the towns of Athol and Kingston.

Health effects of pesticides

pesticidesnegative health effectseffects of pesticides on human health
Exposure routes other than consuming food that contains residues, in particular pesticide drift, are potentially significant to the general public.

Eucalyptus rhodantha

E. rhodantha
Spray drift resulting from pesticide and herbicide application to nearby crops may have a deleterious effect.

Mountain yellow-legged frog

Southern mountain yellow-legged frog
The decline of the frog from its historic range has been associated with pesticide drift from agricultural areas.

Agricultural aircraft

agriculturalcrop dustercrop-duster
Aerial spraying has been controversial since the 1960s, due to environmental concerns about pesticide drift (raised for example by Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring).

Chlorpyrifos

chlorpyriphos-methylchlorpyrifos-methyl
FDA enforces EPA's pesticide tolerances and determines “action levels” for the unintended drift of pesticide residues onto crops without tolerances.

Phytotoxicity

phytotoxicphytotoxic substancesphytotoxic compounds
However herbicides can also cause phytotoxic effects in plants that are not within the area over which the herbicide is applied, for example as a result of wind-blown spray drift or from the use of herbicide-contaminated material (such as straw or manure) being applied to the soil.

California Department of Pesticide Regulation

Pesticide Regulation, Department ofDepartment of Pesticide RegulationDepartment of Pesticide Regulation (DPR)
The California Department of Pesticide Regulation estimates that between 37-68% of pesticide illness among U.S. agricultural workers come as a result of pesticide drift.

Spray nozzle

hydraulic nozzles
With placement (localised) spraying of broad spectrum pesticides, wind drift must be minimized, and considerable efforts have been made to quantify and control spray drift from hydraulic nozzles.

Ultra-low volume

ULV
Conversely, wind drift is also an efficient mechanism for moving droplets of an appropriate size range to their targets over a wide area with ultra-low volume (ULV) spraying.

Active ingredient

active pharmaceutical ingredientsactive pharmaceutical ingredientactive ingredients
Himel (1974) made a distinction between exo-drift (the transfer of spray out of the target area) and endo-drift, where the active ingredient (AI) in droplets falls into the target area, but does not reach the biological target.

Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterpore water
Endo-drift is volumetrically more significant and may therefore cause greater ecological contamination (e.g. where chemical pesticides pollute ground water).

Evaporation

evaporateevaporatedevaporates
Herbicide volatilisation refers to evaporation or sublimation of a volatile herbicide.

Sublimation (phase transition)

sublimationsublimessublimate
Herbicide volatilisation refers to evaporation or sublimation of a volatile herbicide.

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
Herbicide volatilisation refers to evaporation or sublimation of a volatile herbicide.