Pesticide drift

spray drift[drift of pesticideherbicide drift
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.This can lead to damage in human health, environmental contamination, and property damage.wikipedia
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Pesticide application

applicationsprayingequipment for applying
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.This can lead to damage in human health, environmental contamination, and property damage.
Large droplets have the advantage of being less susceptible to spray drift, but require more water per unit of land covered.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.This can lead to damage in human health, environmental contamination, and property damage.
Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them.

Aerial application

crop dustingcrop dustercropduster
Aerial application
Many countries have severely limited aerial application of pesticides and other products because of environmental and public health hazards like spray drift; most notably, the European Union banned it outright with a few highly restricted exceptions in 2009, effectively ending the practice in all member states.

Environmental impact of agriculture

a variety of effects on the environmentagriculturecommercial agriculture
Environmental impact of agriculture
Pesticide drift

Spray nozzle

hydraulic nozzles
With placement (localised) spraying of broad spectrum pesticides, wind drift must be minimized, and considerable efforts have been made to quantify and control spray drift from hydraulic nozzles.

Ultra-low volume

ULV
Conversely, wind drift is also an efficient mechanism for moving droplets of an appropriate size range to their targets over a wide area with ultra-low volume (ULV) spraying.

Active ingredient

active pharmaceutical ingredientactive pharmaceutical ingredientsactive ingredients
Himel (1974) made a distinction between exo-drift (the transfer of spray out of the target area) and endo-drift, where the active ingredient (AI) in droplets falls into the target area, but does not reach the biological target.

Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterground
Endo-drift is volumetrically more significant and may therefore cause greater ecological contamination (e.g. where chemical pesticides pollute ground water).

Evaporation

evaporateevaporatedevaporates
Herbicide volatilisation refers to evaporation or sublimation of a volatile herbicide.

Sublimation (phase transition)

sublimationsublimessublimate
Herbicide volatilisation refers to evaporation or sublimation of a volatile herbicide.

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
Herbicide volatilisation refers to evaporation or sublimation of a volatile herbicide.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-D2, 4-D2,4D
Wind, temperature, and humidity also affect the rate of volatilisation, with humidity reducing it. 2,4-D and dicamba are commonly used chemicals that are known to be subject to volatilisation, but there are many others.

Dicamba

Wind, temperature, and humidity also affect the rate of volatilisation, with humidity reducing it. 2,4-D and dicamba are commonly used chemicals that are known to be subject to volatilisation, but there are many others.

Genetically modified plant

transgenic planttransgenic plantsgenetically modified plants
Application of herbicides later in the season to protect herbicide-resistant genetically modified plants increases the risk of volatilisation as the temperature is higher and incorporation into the soil impractical.

Point source pollution

point sourcepoint sourcespoint
Although there has been much public concern and research into spray drift, point source pollution (e.g. pesticides entering bodies of water following spillage of concentrate or rinsate) can also cause great environmental harm.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives Journal
From 1998 to 2006, Environmental Health Perspectives found nearly 3,000 cases of pesticide drift, nearly half were workers on the fields treated with pesticides and 14% of cases were children under the age of 15.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
Agricultural runoff

Environmental justice

environmentalenvironmental justice movementecological justice
Farmworker justice

Nonpoint source pollution

nonpoint sourcenonpoint sourcesnon-point sources
Nonpoint source pollution

List of environmental issues

environmental issuesconservation issuesenvironmental problems
Intensive farming — Agricultural subsidy • Environmental effects of meat production • Intensive animal farming • Intensive crop farming • Irrigation • Monoculture • Nutrient pollution • Overgrazing • Pesticide drift • Plasticulture • Slash and burn • Tile drainage

Environmental impact of pesticides

pesticide pollutionenvironmental effects of pesticidesmore than 67 million birds are killed by pesticides each year
Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them.

Wilding conifer

wilding pineswilding coniferswilding pine
In 2004 a spraying operation by the Department of Conservation at Mid Dome in the Southland Region caused spray drift onto surrounding areas including the towns of Athol and Kingston.

Health effects of pesticides

effects of pesticides on human healthhealth concernsnegative health effects
Exposure routes other than consuming food that contains residues, in particular pesticide drift, are potentially significant to the general public.