Pesticide resistance

insecticide resistanceresistanceherbicide resistanceresistantherbicide resistantherbicide-resistantresistance to pesticidesherbicideimmunityinsecticide-resistant
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.wikipedia
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Insecticide Resistance Action Committee

The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) definition of insecticide resistance is 'a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest species'.
The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was formed in 1984 and works as a specialist technical group of the industry association CropLife to be able to provide a coordinated industry response to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance in insect and mite pests.

Insecticide

insecticidesinsecticidalsystemic
The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) definition of insecticide resistance is 'a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest species'.
The technique is expected to replace many other insecticides, which are losing effectiveness due to the spread of pesticide resistance.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
DDT use is not always effective, as resistance to DDT was identified in Africa as early as 1955, and by 1972 nineteen species of mosquito worldwide were resistant to DDT.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Pest species evolve pesticide resistance via natural selection: the most resistant specimens survive and pass on their acquired heritable changes traits to their offspring.
A similar situation occurs with pesticide resistance in plants and insects.

Malaria

cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarial
DDT is no longer effective in preventing malaria in some places.
One problem with all forms of IRS is insecticide resistance.

DDT

dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanep,p'-DDTDichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
The development of organic insecticides, such as DDT, gave hope that insecticide resistance was a dead issue.
The authors concluded that "Finding DDT resistance in the vector An. arabiensis, close to the area where we previously reported pyrethroid-resistance in the vector An. funestus Giles, indicates an urgent need to develop a strategy of insecticide resistance management for the malaria control programmes of southern Africa."

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
As of 2014, few new weed killers are near commercialization, and none with a novel, resistance-free mode of action. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designates different classes of fungicides, herbicides and insecticides.
Due to herbicide resistance - a major concern in agriculture - a number of products combine herbicides with different means of action.

Bacillus thuringiensis

BtB. thuringiensisB . thuringiensis
With the introduction of every new insecticide class – cyclodienes, carbamates, formamidines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, even Bacillus thuringiensis – cases of resistance surfaced within two to 20 years. In Hawaii, Japan and Tennessee, the diamondback moth evolved a resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis about three years after it began to be used heavily.
In November 2009, Monsanto scientists found the pink bollworm had become resistant to the first-generation Bt cotton in parts of Gujarat, India - that generation expresses one Bt gene, Cry1Ac.

Diamondback moth

(''Plutella xylostella'')Diamondback mothsPlutella xylostella
In Hawaii, Japan and Tennessee, the diamondback moth evolved a resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis about three years after it began to be used heavily.
The agriculture industry has been trying to find biological and natural ways to eliminate the diamondback moth especially since the moths have become resistant to pesticides.

Amaranthus palmeri

Pigweedcarelessweedsouthwestern pigweed
In the southern United States, Amaranthus palmeri, which interferes with cotton production, has evolved resistance to the herbicide glyphosate.
In many places, the plant has developed resistance since at least 2006 to glyphosate, a widely used broad-spectrum herbicide.

Colorado potato beetle

potato beetleColorado beetlespotato beetles
The Colorado potato beetle has evolved resistance to 52 different compounds belonging to all major insecticide classes. Resistance levels vary across populations and between beetle life stages, but in some cases can be very high (up to 2,000-fold).
However, many chemicals are often unsuccessful when used against this pest because of the beetle's ability to rapidly develop insecticide resistance.

Integrated pest management

IPMgreen pesticideIntegrated Pest Management (IPM)
Integrated pest management (IPM) approach provides a balanced approach to minimizing resistance.
Acceptable pest levels—The emphasis is on control, not eradication. IPM holds that wiping out an entire pest population is often impossible, and the attempt can be expensive and unsafe. IPM programmes first work to establish acceptable pest levels, called action thresholds, and apply controls if those thresholds are crossed. These thresholds are pest and site specific, meaning that it may be acceptable at one site to have a weed such as white clover, but not at another site. Allowing a pest population to survive at a reasonable threshold reduces selection pressure. This lowers the rate at which a pest develops resistance to a control, because if almost all pests are killed then those that have resistance will provide the genetic basis of the future population. Retaining a significant number of unresistant specimens dilutes the prevalence of any resistant genes that appear. Similarly, the repeated use of a single class of controls will create pest populations that are more resistant to that class, whereas alternating among classes helps prevent this.

Fungicide

fungicidesantifungalfungicidal
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designates different classes of fungicides, herbicides and insecticides.
Pathogens respond to the use of fungicides by evolving resistance.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
Glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops are not affected.
These traits include improved shelf life, disease resistance, stress resistance, herbicide resistance, pest resistance, production of useful goods such as biofuel or drugs, and ability to absorb toxins and for use in bioremediation of pollution.

Cross-resistance

cross resistance
Cross-resistance, a related phenomenon, occurs when the genetic mutation that made the pest resistant to one pesticide also makes it resistant to others, often those with a similar mechanism of action.
Pesticide resistance

Vavilovian mimicry

mimicsecondary cropVavilovian
Vavilovian mimicry
Similar situations include antibiotic resistance and, of similar nature to crop mimicry, herbicide resistance.

Pest (organism)

pestpestsagricultural pest
Cases of resistance have been reported in all classes of pests (i.e. crop diseases, weeds, rodents, etc.), with 'crises' in insect control occurring early-on after the introduction of pesticide use in the 20th century.

Heredity

hereditaryinheritedheritable
The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) definition of insecticide resistance is 'a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest species'. Pest species evolve pesticide resistance via natural selection: the most resistant specimens survive and pass on their acquired heritable changes traits to their offspring.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Farmers in the US lost 7% of their crops to pests in the 1940s; over the 1980s and 1990s, the loss was 13%, even though more pesticides were being used.

Diabrotica

corn rootwormcorn rootwormscucumber beetles
For example, the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) became adapted to a corn-soybean crop rotation by spending the year when field is planted to soybeans in a diapause.

Crop rotation

fallowrotationthree-field system
For example, the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) became adapted to a corn-soybean crop rotation by spending the year when field is planted to soybeans in a diapause.

Diapause

diapausingreproductive diapausedormancy
For example, the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) became adapted to a corn-soybean crop rotation by spending the year when field is planted to soybeans in a diapause.

Phytotoxin

phytotoxicphytotoxinsbacterial phytotoxin
For example, many plants produce phytotoxins to protect them from herbivores.

Generation time

Generation lengthaverage familial generation lengthgenerational length
Pests with shorter generation times develop resistance more quickly than others.

Housefly

housefliesMusca domesticahouse fly
However, by 1947 housefly resistance to DDT had evolved.