A report on Peter Abelard

Page from Apologia contra Bernardum, Abelard's reply to Bernard of Clairvaux
Abelard Teaching by François Flameng, mural at the Sorbonne
"Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert", by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819)
Abelard, attacked and castrated
Statue of Abelard at Louvre Palace in Paris by Jules Cavelier
Abelard receives the monastery of the Paraclete Héloïse (1129)
Dedicatory panel in the Père Lachaise Cemetery
Abelard and Héloïse in a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose (14th century)
Jean-Baptiste Goyet, Héloïse et Abailard, oil on copper, c. 1829.
Heloise and Abelard, Achille Devaria, 19th c. engraving
Abelard, Heloise, and medieval astrolabe portrayed in Michael Shenefelt's stage play, Heloise

Medieval French scholastic philosopher, leading logician, theologian, poet, composer and musician.

- Peter Abelard
Page from Apologia contra Bernardum, Abelard's reply to Bernard of Clairvaux

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Héloïse

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Héloïse (c. 1100–01?

Héloïse (c. 1100–01?

Monument to Abelard and Heloise at Le Pallet, by Sylviane and Bilal Hassan-Courgeau
Heloise and Abelard, painting at Petit Palais
Jean-Baptiste Goyet, Héloïse et Abailard, oil on copper, c. 1829.
Heloise takes the habit at Argenteuil
Heloise at the Abbey of the Paraclete by Jean-Baptiste Mallet
Abelard and his pupil Heloise by Edmund Leighton, 1882
Léon-Marie-Joseph Billardet (1818–1862), Abelard Instructing Heloise. Note Heloise's cowering position in the second panel.
Salvador Dalí, Painting of Abelard and Heloise
Abelard, Heloise and medieval astrolabe portrayed in Michael Shenefelt's stage play, Heloise

She is famous in history and popular culture for her love affair and correspondence with the leading medieval logician and theologian Peter Abelard, who became her colleague, collaborator and husband.

14th-century image of a university lecture

Scholasticism

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Medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

Medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

14th-century image of a university lecture

The Scholastics, also known as Schoolmen, included as its main figures Anselm of Canterbury ("the father of scholasticism" ), Peter Abelard, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Bonaventure, and Thomas Aquinas.

William of Ockham

Nominalism

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View that universals and abstract objects do not actually exist other than being merely names or labels.

View that universals and abstract objects do not actually exist other than being merely names or labels.

William of Ockham

Nominalist ideas can be found in the work of Peter Abelard and reached their flowering in William of Ockham, who was the most influential and thorough nominalist.

University of Paris

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The leading university in Paris, France, active from 1150 to 1970, with the exception of 1793–1806 under the French Revolution.

The leading university in Paris, France, active from 1150 to 1970, with the exception of 1793–1806 under the French Revolution.

The Sorbonne covered by snow.
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a 16th-century miniature.
Map showing the territories covered by the four nations of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages.
Rue Saint-Jacques and the Sorbonne in Paris
The Old Sorbonne on fire in 1670.
The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th-century engraving
The Sorbonne as seen from rue des Écoles.
Victor Cousin
John Calvin
Thomas Aquinas
Denis Diderot
Antoine-Henri Becquerel
Marie Skłodowska Curie
Henri Bergson
Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean Tirole
Gabriel Lippmann
Jean Perrin
Alfred Kastler
Jules Bordet
T. S. Eliot
Antoine-Henri Becquerel

These two schools attracted scholars from every country and produced many illustrious men, among whom were: St. Stanislaus of Szczepanów, Bishop of Kraków; Gebbard, Archbishop of Salzburg; St. Stephen, third Abbot of Cîteaux; Robert d'Arbrissel, founder of the Abbey of Fontevrault etc. Three other men who added prestige to the schools of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève were William of Champeaux, Abélard, and Peter Lombard.

The structure designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot for the Paris Law Faculty, on place du Panthéon

Faculty of Law of Paris

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Second-oldest faculty of law in the world and one of the four and eventually five faculties of the University of Paris ("the Sorbonne"), from the 12th century until 1970.

Second-oldest faculty of law in the world and one of the four and eventually five faculties of the University of Paris ("the Sorbonne"), from the 12th century until 1970.

The structure designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot for the Paris Law Faculty, on place du Panthéon
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Pierre Abelard, theologian and logician before the existence of the faculty of law, who gave to the Sorbonne a recognition for its expertise in law in the early 20th century
Saint Ivo, alumnus, declared saint by the Church in 1347, patron of the lawyers, "Advocate of the Poors". His day is still celebrated by the lawyers, at least in France. In this painting, he is bringing justice between a rich and a poor
Jacques-Germain Soufflot, alumnus and architect of the Panthéon building of the Faculty of Law of Paris, opened in 1774
Large amphitheatre of the Faculty of Law of Paris in 1847
Course at the Faculty of Law of Paris in the early 20th century
Andrea Alciato, founder of legal humanism
René Cassin, co-author of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Nobel Peace Prize, soldier during WW2

Pierre Abélard, founder of modern law, was its precursor as a teacher at the cathedral school of Notre-Dame de Paris, Andrea Alciato, founder of legal humanism, was a professor there, and Saint Ivo, patron of the lawyers and "Advocate of the Poors" according to the Catholic Church, has studied there.

Roscellinus

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Roscelin of Compiègne (c.

Roscelin of Compiègne (c.

Little is known of his life, and knowledge of his doctrines is mainly derived from Anselm and Abelard.

San Bernardo by Juan Correa de Vivar, held in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, Spain

Bernard of Clairvaux

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Burgundian abbot and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Cistercian Order.

Burgundian abbot and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Cistercian Order.

San Bernardo by Juan Correa de Vivar, held in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, Spain
The Vision of St Bernard, by Fra Bartolommeo, c. 1504 (Uffizi)
Bernard exorcising a possession, altarpiece by Jörg Breu the Elder, c. 1500
Bernard holding a demon at his feet, oiloncanvas by Marcello Baschenis, c. 1885
The abbey of Cluny as it would have looked in Bernard's time
Christ Embracing St. Bernard by Francisco Ribalta
Saint Bernard and the Duke of Aquitaine, by Marten Pepijn
Bernard receiving milk from the breast of the Virgin Mary. The scene is a legend which allegedly took place at Speyer Cathedral in 1146.
Stained glass representing Bernard. Upper Rhine, c. 1450
An engraving of The Lactation of Saint Bernard. The Virgin Mary is shooting milk into the eye of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux from her right breast.

In 1139, Bernard attended the Second Council of the Lateran and criticized Peter Abelard vocally.

Moral influence theory of atonement

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The moral influence or moral example theory of atonement, developed or most notably propagated by Abelard (1079–1142), is an alternative to Anselm's satisfaction theory of atonement.

A medical illustration by Sharaf ad-Din depicting an operation for castration, c. 1466

Castration

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Any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles: the male gonad.

Any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles: the male gonad.

A medical illustration by Sharaf ad-Din depicting an operation for castration, c. 1466
The Castration of Uranus: fresco by Vasari & Cristofano Gherardi (c. 1560, Sala di Cosimo I, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence)
Chief Eunuch of Abdul Hamid II (1912)
The procedure of castration as punishment during the 16th century
Castration being performed on a horse under ketamine anaesthesia.
Rubber rings and pliers used in elastration

Another victim of castration was the 12th-century medieval French philosopher, scholar, teacher, and (later) monk Pierre Abélard.

Peter Abelard, a French philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician, put forward the theory of conceptualism

Conceptualism

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Theory that explains universality of particulars as conceptualized frameworks situated within the thinking mind.

Theory that explains universality of particulars as conceptualized frameworks situated within the thinking mind.

Peter Abelard, a French philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician, put forward the theory of conceptualism

Peter Abélard was a medieval thinker whose work is currently classified as having the most potential in representing the roots of conceptualism.