Peter Martyr Vermigli

Peter MartyrPietro Martire VermigliPietro MartireVermigliCatherinePeter Martyr VermiliPeter VermigliPietro Martire Vermiglio
Peter Martyr Vermigli (8 September 149912 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian.wikipedia
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Regius Professor of Divinity

Regius Professor of Divinity at CambridgeRegius Professorship of DivinityRegius Professor of Divinity at Oxford
English reformer Thomas Cranmer invited him to take an influential post at Oxford University where he continued to teach on the Bible. In 1548, he replaced Richard Smyth, becoming the second Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford.

Book of Common Prayer

Prayer BookThe Book of Common Prayer1662 Book of Common Prayer
In England, he influenced the Edwardian Reformation, including the Eucharistic service of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer.
Many phrases are characteristic of the German reformer Martin Bucer, the Italian Peter Martyr (who was staying with Cranmer at the time he was finalising drafts) or of his chaplain, Thomas Becon.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
His early work as a reformer in Catholic Italy and his decision to flee for Protestant northern Europe influenced many other Italians to convert and flee as well.
Calvinism, also called the Reformed tradition, was advanced by several theologians such as Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Huldrych Zwingli, but this branch of Christianity bears the name of the French reformer John Calvin because of his prominent influence on it and because of his role in the confessional and ecclesiastical debates throughout the 16th century.

Reginald Pole

Cardinal PoleCardinal Reginald PoleReginald Cardinal Pole
He also made the acquaintance of prominent reform-minded theologians Pietro Bembo, Reginald Pole, and Marcantonio Flaminio.
In 1521, Pole went to the University of Padua, where he met leading Renaissance figures, including Pietro Bembo, Gianmatteo Giberti (formerly pope Leo X's datary and chief minister), Jacopo Sadoleto, Gianpietro Carafa (the future Pope Paul IV), Rodolfo Pio, Otto Truchsess, Stanislaus Hosius, Cristoforo Madruzzo, Giovanni Morone, Pier Paolo Vergerio the younger, Peter Martyr Vermigli and Vettor Soranzo.

Lord's Supper in Reformed theology

Lord's Supperpneumatic presenceCalvin's views of the Eucharist
Vermigli's best-known theological contribution was defending the Reformed doctrine of the Eucharist against Catholics and Lutherans.
Calvin's teaching on the Lord's Supper was followed by many others in the Reformed tradition, including Martin Bucer and Peter Martyr Vermigli.

Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

Real PresencepresentReal Presence of Christ
He also disagreed with the Lutheran view that Christ's body is ubiquitous and so physically present at the Eucharist.
Among these were Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Bernardino Ochino, Paul Fagius, and Jan Łaski.

Edward VI of England

Edward VIKing Edward VIPrince Edward
In England, he influenced the Edwardian Reformation, including the Eucharistic service of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer.
Cranmer was also influenced by the views of the continental reformer Martin Bucer, who died in England in 1551, by Peter Martyr, who was teaching at Oxford, and by other foreign theologians.

Bernardino Ochino

OchinoBernard OchinoOchinus
When he stopped in Florence, staying in Badia Fiesolana where he had entered religious life, Vermigli learned that Bernardino Ochino had arrived there.
By then he was the close friend of Juan de Valdés, Pietro Bembo, Vittoria Colonna, Pietro Martire, Carnesecchi.

Girolamo Zanchi

ZanchiusJerome ZanchiusJerome Zanchi
Among the professors were the humanists Immanuel Tremellius, Paolo Lacizi, Celio Secondo Curione, and Girolamo Zanchi, all of whom would later convert to Protestantism.
After completing his studies, he went to Lucca, and there under the influence of Peter Martyr Vermigli he opted for a theological career, being especially impressed by Vermigli's lectures on Romans.

Paolo Lacizi

Among the professors were the humanists Immanuel Tremellius, Paolo Lacizi, Celio Secondo Curione, and Girolamo Zanchi, all of whom would later convert to Protestantism.
Paolo Lacizi was a canon regular of the Lateran Congregation who converted to Protestantism and fled with Peter Martyr Vermigli.

Martin Bucer

BucerMartin ButzerButzer
He came in contact with leaders of the Italian spirituali reform movement, and read Protestant theologians such as Martin Bucer and Ulrich Zwingli.
In June he entered a controversy when Peter Martyr, another refugee who had taken the equivalent Regius Professor position at Oxford University, debated with Catholic colleagues over the issue of the Lord's Supper.

Juan de Valdés

Juan de ValdesValdés
There he became acquainted with Juan de Valdés, a leader of the spirituali movement.
Vermigli (Peter Martyr) and Marcantonio Flaminio were leading spirits in his coterie, which included the marchioness of Pescara Vittoria Colonna (April 1490; a widower since 1525 – 25 February 1547, aged 57), since 1537, and her younger widower sister-in-law, Giulia Gonzaga, (1513; marries 1526, aged 13; a widower since 1529, aged 16 – 16 April 1566, aged 53).

John Calvin

CalvinJean CalvinCalvinist
Vermigli developed a strong doctrine of double predestination independently of John Calvin.
Several leading divines, either Calvinist or those sympathetic to Calvinism, settled in England (Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr, and Jan Laski) and Scotland (John Knox).

John Jewel

Bishop JewellJewellBishop John Jewel
John Jewel, a fellow Marian exile, came along with him.
He made some mark as a teacher at Oxford, and became after 1547 one of the chief disciples of Pietro Martire Vermigli, known in England as Peter Martyr.

Celio Secondo Curione

Caelius Secundus Curio
Among the professors were the humanists Immanuel Tremellius, Paolo Lacizi, Celio Secondo Curione, and Girolamo Zanchi, all of whom would later convert to Protestantism.
When Curio arrived, there was already a large active colony of Italian internal religious exiles, including Paolo Lazise, Celso Martinengo, the jewish convert Emanuele Tremellio, Peter Martyr and Girolamo Zanchi.

William Chedsey

Smyth fled to St Andrews and finally to Leuven before the disputation could be held, so three Catholic divines, William Tresham, William Chedsey and Morgan Phillips, stepped forward to take his place.
In 1549 he distinguished himself in a public disputation with Peter Martyr, held in the divinity school at Oxford.

Morgan Phillips (priest)

Morgan PhillipsMorgan Philipps
Smyth fled to St Andrews and finally to Leuven before the disputation could be held, so three Catholic divines, William Tresham, William Chedsey and Morgan Phillips, stepped forward to take his place.
He was one of the three prominent Catholics who, in 1549, took part in a public disputation against Pietro Martire Vermigli in the divinity hall of the university, with William Tresham and William Chedsey.

Vestments controversy

controversyvestiarian controversyvestments
Vermigli supported the church's position in the vestarian controversy, over whether bishop John Hooper should be forced to wear a surplice.
Heinrich Bullinger, Pietro Martire Vermigli, and Martin Bucer, while agreeing with Hooper's views, ceased to support him; only John a Lasco remained an ally.

Richard Cox (bishop)

Richard CoxBishop CoxCoxians
The disputation was held in 1549 before Richard Cox, the University Chancellor and a firm Protestant.
As Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1547–1552) he promoted foreign divines such as Pietro Martire Vermigli, and was a moving spirit of the two commissions which sought with some success to eradicate everything savouring of popery from the books, manuscripts, ornaments and endowments of the university, and earned Cox the sobriquet of its 'Canceller' rather than its Chancellor.

Richard Smyth (theologian)

Richard SmythRichard SmithRichard Smyth (Regius Professor)
In 1548, he replaced Richard Smyth, becoming the second Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford.
However, even if the accounts are reliable, he soon afterwards he became a Catholic again and was thus replaced in his professorship with Peter Martyr.

Heinrich Bullinger

BullingerHenry Bullinger
Once Vermigli arrived in Zürich he was questioned regarding his theological views by several Protestant leaders including Heinrich Bullinger, Konrad Pellikan, and Rudolph Gualther.
His circle of collaborators in the Zürich church and Carolinum academy included Gwalther, Konrad Pellikan, Theodor Bibliander, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Johannes Wolf, Josias Simler, and Ludwig Lavater.

Johann Marbach

Johannes Marbach
Since Vermigli's departure and the death of Bucer in 1551, Lutheranism had gained influence in Strasbourg under the leadership of Johann Marbach.
Also that year Peter Martyr, a teacher at the High School, left for Zurich to escape making declarations on the same topic.

Calvinism

CalvinistReformedCalvinists
Peter Martyr Vermigli (8 September 149912 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian.
The most important Reformed theologians include Calvin, Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox.

Reformed scholasticism

Reformed orthodoxReformed orthodoxyReformed scholastic
Vermigli was a transitional figure between the Reformation period and the period known as Reformed orthodoxy.
Though scholasticism can already be seen in early Reformed theologians, especially Vermigli and to some degree Calvin, it became much more prevalent during the third and fourth generations of Reformed theologians as a tool to institutionalize the faith by codifying it in confessions and works of systematic theology, as well as to combat the growing sophistication of counter-Reformation polemicists.

John Cotton (minister)

John CottonJohn Cotton (Puritan)Mr. Cotton
Vermigli's works were highly regarded by New England Puritan theologians such as John Cotton and Cotton Mather.
Other inspirations to his theology include the Apostle Paul and Bishop Cyprian, and reformation leaders Zacharias Ursinus, Theodore Beza, Franciscus Junius (the elder), Jerome Zanchius, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Johannes Piscator, and Martin Bucer.