A report on Peter Martyr Vermigli

Pietro Vermigli, by Hans Asper, 1560
The Badia Fiesolana, where Vermigli entered religious life
Basilica of San Frediano, where Vermigli was appointed prior in 1541
Engraving after a woodcut by Jos Murer
Painting of Vermigli (left) and Theodor Bibliander (right), who strongly disagreed with Vermigli's doctrine of predestination
Title page of the 1576 Loci Communes
1599 engraving by Hendrik HondiusI

Italian-born Calvinist theologian.

- Peter Martyr Vermigli
Pietro Vermigli, by Hans Asper, 1560

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Portrait by an unknown artist, German School

Martin Bucer

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German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.

German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.

Portrait by an unknown artist, German School
Map showing the two partitions that made up Saxony in green and pink. Saxony had long been divided into two principalities, one of which, with its capital at Wittenberg, was an electorate. Charles V transferred the electorate and much of its territory to Albertine Saxony in 1547 after the defeat of the Schmalkaldic League and John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony. Hesse was to the west of Saxony. Important cities that Bucer visited are shown in red.
Franz von Sickingen was the protector and defender of Martin Bucer during his early years.
Matthew Zell was the first major reformer in Strasbourg and supported Bucer on his arrival in the city.
Bucer tried to mediate between Martin Luther (left) and Huldrych Zwingli (right) on doctrinal matters.
The Church of the Penitent Magdalens' steeple behind timber-framed houses extant since the time of Martin Bucer
Philipp Melanchthon worked closely with Bucer on many theological documents to advance the reformed cause.
Charles V attempted to win back Protestant princes through a series of colloquies and imperial diets. When reconciliation failed, he sought to suppress Protestant resistance in the Schmalkaldic War.
Thomas Cranmer gave Martin Bucer refuge in England, where he lived his final years.
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In June he entered a controversy when Peter Martyr Vermigli, another refugee who had taken the equivalent Regius Professor position at Oxford University, debated with Catholic colleagues over the issue of the Lord's Supper.

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

Calvinism

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Major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

The most important Reformed theologians include Calvin, Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox.

Regius Professor of Divinity

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The Regius Professorships of Divinity are amongst the oldest professorships at the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge.

The Regius Professorships of Divinity are amongst the oldest professorships at the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge.

Peter Martyr, DD, of the University of Padua, Canon of Christ Church (1548)

Portrait by Gerlach Flicke, 1545

Thomas Cranmer

6 links

Leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I.

Leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I.

Portrait by Gerlach Flicke, 1545
Cranmer's paternal canting arms: Argent, a chevron between three cranes azure
Henry VIII recognised Cranmer's value in obtaining support for the annulment of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1536
New arms granted circa 1544 to Thomas Cranmer by King Henry VIII, in lieu of his paternal arms:Argent, on a chevron azure between three pelicans sable vulning themselves proper as many cinquefoils or, telling him "That those birds should signify unto him, that he ought to be ready, as the pelican is, to shed his blood for his young ones, brought up in the faith of Christ
The family of Anne Boleyn secured the appointment of Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury. Later portrait by an unknown artist.
Thomas Cromwell was the vicegerent acting as the main agent for the king over spiritual matters. Portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532–1533.
Philipp Melanchthon was the Continental reformer Henry most admired. In 1552 Cranmer invited him to participate in an ecumenical council in England. Engraving by Albrecht Dürer, 1526
Portrait of Cranmer painted by an unknown artist after Henry VIII's death. It was said that his beard signified his mourning of the king and his rejection of the old Church.
Martin Bucer, who had corresponded with Cranmer for many years, was forced to take refuge in England.
The title page of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer
John Hooper was influenced by the Zwinglian Reformation and advocated more radical reforms. Portrait by Henry Bryan Hall, 1839.
Peter Martyr (Pietro Martire Vermigli) greatly assisted Cranmer in the English Reformation. Portrait by Hans Asper, 1560.
Stained glass window depicting Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, the Oxford Martyrs
The Trial of Thomas Cranmer (1580)
Cranmer's martyrdom, from Foxe's Book of Martyrs (1563)
Statue of Cranmer on the Martyrs' Memorial, Oxford

The letter was delivered to Cranmer by two Italian reformed theologians, Peter Martyr and Bernardino Ochino who were invited to take refuge in England.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Protestantism

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Form of Christianity that follows the tenets of the Protestant Reformation: a major movement within Western Christianity that began in the 16th century against what its followers perceived to be errors, abuses, innovations, discrepancies, and theological novums within the medieval Catholic Church.

Form of Christianity that follows the tenets of the Protestant Reformation: a major movement within Western Christianity that began in the 16th century against what its followers perceived to be errors, abuses, innovations, discrepancies, and theological novums within the medieval Catholic Church.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
A Lutheran depiction of the Last Supper by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1547
Execution of Jan Hus in 1415
Spread of Lollardy in medieval England and medieval Scotland
Wessel Gansfort
Distribution of Protestantism and Catholicism in Central Europe on the eve of the Thirty Years' War (1618)
1839 Methodist camp meeting during the Second Great Awakening in the U.S.
Dissatisfaction with the outcome of a disputation in 1525 prompted Swiss Brethren to part ways with Huldrych Zwingli
Glass window in the town church of Wiesloch (Stadtkirche Wiesloch) with Martin Luther and John Calvin commemorating the 1821 union of Lutheran and Reformed churches in the Grand Duchy of Baden
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
Indonesian Reformed Evangelical Church megachurch
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Hillsong Church Konstanz, Germany, an evangelical charismatic church
Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch Reformed theologian, whose views influenced parts of Protestantism. A small Remonstrant community remains in the Netherlands.
Karl Barth, often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century
Columbia University, established by the Church of England
Enlightenment philosopher John Locke argued for individual conscience, free from state control
St. Peter's Church (1612), the oldest surviving Protestant church in the "New World" (the Americas and certain Atlantic Ocean islands), the first of nine Parish churches established in Bermuda by the Church of England. Bermuda also has the oldest Presbyterian church outside the British Isles, the Church of Scotland's Christ Church (1719).
James Springer White and his wife, Ellen G. White founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
An Adventist pastor baptizes a young man in Mozambique.
Loma Linda University Seventh-day Adventist Church in Loma Linda, California, United States.
Dirk Willems saves his pursuer. This act of mercy led to his recapture, after which he was burned at the stake.
An Amish family in a horse-drawn square buggy.
Alexanderwohl Mennonite Church in rural Goessel, Kansas, United States.
Thomas Cranmer, one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity.
The various editions of the Book of Common Prayer contain the words of structured services of worship in the Anglican Church.
British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey, a royal peculiar under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch.
Roger Williams was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers.
The First Baptist Church in America. Baptists are roughly one-third of U.S. Protestants.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/appendix-b-classification-of-protestant-denominations/|title=Appendix B: Classification of Protestant Denominations|date=12 May 2015}}</ref>
John Calvin's theological thought influenced a variety of Congregational, Continental Reformed, United, Presbyterian, and other Reformed churches.
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891.
A Congregational church in Cheshire, Connecticut, United States.
Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Luther composed hymns still used today, including "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"
Moses and Elijah direct the sinner looking for salvation to the cross in this painting illustrating Luther's Theology of the Cross (as opposed to a Theology of Glory).
John Wesley, the primary founder of the Methodism.
A United Methodist elder celebrating the Eucharist.
Methodist Central Hall in Westminster, London.
Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit.
Contemporary Christian worship in Rock Harbor Church, Costa Mesa, United States.
A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany.
George Fox was an English dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
Friedensthal Moravian Church Christiansted, St Croix, USVI founded in 1755.
A night shelter of The Salvation Army in Geneva, Switzerland.
William Wilberforce, a British evangelical abolitionist.
Billy Graham, a prominent evangelical revivalist, preaching in Duisburg, Germany in 1954.
Worship service at Église Nouvelle vie, an evangelical Pentecostal church in Longueuil, Canada.
An Evangelical Protestant church in Hämeenlinna, Finland.
Philipp Jakob Spener, German pioneer and founder of Pietism.
Pietism has been a strong cultural influence in Scandinavia.
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866.
John Cotton, who sparked the Antinomian Controversy with his free grace theology.
Pilgrim Fathers landing at Plymouth Rock in 1620.
Built in 1681, the Old Ship Church in Hingham, Massachusetts is the oldest church in America in continuous ecclesiastical use.<ref>{{Cite news|last = Butterfield|first = Fox|title = The Perfect New England Town|url = https://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/14/travel/the-perfect-new-england-village.html?sec=&spon=|newspaper = The New York Times|date = 14 May 1989|access-date = 30 May 2010}}</ref>
Luther Monument in Worms, which features some of the Reformation's crucial figures.
The International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Adoration of the Trinity  by Albrecht Dürer.
The Crucifixion of Christ by Lucas Cranach the Elder.
The Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Younger.
A Huguenot, on St. Bartholomew's Day, Refusing to Shield Himself from Danger by Wearing the Roman Catholic Badge by John Everett Millais.
The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669 by Rembrandt.
The Church at Auvers, 1890. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. By Vincent van Gogh.
Protestant majority countries in 2010.
Countries by percentage of Protestants.
Protestantism as state religion:
Lutheranism
Anglicanism
Calvinism
Methodism
A Moravian diener serves bread to fellow members of her congregation during the celebration of a lovefest (2015).
A hymnal of the Free Methodist Church, a Methodist denomination aligned with the holiness movement.

Calvinism, also called the Reformed tradition, was advanced by several theologians such as Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Huldrych Zwingli, but this branch of Christianity bears the name of the French reformer John Calvin because of his prominent influence on it and because of his role in the confessional and ecclesiastical debates throughout the 16th century.

Portrait by Hans Asper, c. 1550

Heinrich Bullinger

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Swiss Reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Church of Zürich and former pastor at Grossmünster.

Swiss Reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Church of Zürich and former pastor at Grossmünster.

Portrait by Hans Asper, c. 1550
Sculpture of Bullinger at Grossmünster (Otto Charles Bänninger 1940)
Iconoclasm during the Reformation in Zürich, Stadelhofen, illustrated Bullinger chronicle

Although he helped run the Carolinium, he never held professorship in it, leaving the main teaching to the well-renowned faculty which included his son-in-law Rudolf Gwalther, Konrad Pellikan, Theodor Bibliander, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Conrad Gesner, Johannes Wolf, Josias Simler, and Ludwig Lavater.

Portrait by William Scrots, 1550

Edward VI

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King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death in 1553.

King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death in 1553.

Portrait by William Scrots, 1550
Prince Edward in 1538, by Hans Holbein the Younger. He holds a golden rattle that resembles a sceptre; and the Latin inscription urges him to equal or surpass his father.
Edward as Prince of Wales, 1546. He wears the Prince of Wales's feathers and crown on the pendant jewel. Attributed to William Scrots. Royal Collection, Windsor Castle
The badge of Prince Edward, from John Leland's Genethliacon illustrissimi Eaduerdi principis Cambriae (1543)
Portrait miniature of Edward by an unknown artist, 1543–1546 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Coat of arms of King Edward VI
Portrait of King Edward VI, aged about thirteen, by William Scrots
Edward VI and the Pope: An Allegory of the Reformation. This Elizabethan work of propaganda depicts the handing over of power from Henry VIII, who lies dying in bed, to Edward VI, seated beneath a cloth of state with a slumping pope at his feet. In the top right of the picture is an image of men pulling down and smashing idols. At Edward's side are his uncle the Lord Protector Edward Seymour and members of the Privy Council. National Portrait Gallery, London
Edward VI signing his first death warrant, by John Pettie R.A
Edward VI's uncle, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, ruled England in the name of his nephew as Lord Protector from 1547 to 1549.
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, later 1st Duke of Northumberland, led the Privy Council after the downfall of Somerset.
Shilling with portrait of Edward VI, struck 1551–1553
Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, exerted a powerful influence on Edward's Protestantism.
In his "devise for the succession", Edward passed over his sisters' claims to the throne in favour of Lady Jane Grey. In the fourth line, he altered "L Janes heires masles" to "L Jane and her heires masles" (Lady Jane and her male heirs). Inner Temple Library, London
Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed queen four days after Edward's death.
Two weeks after Edward's death, the Privy Council proclaimed his half-sister as Queen Mary I, despite Edward's attempt to prevent her accession.
A contemporary woodcut of Hugh Latimer preaching to King Edward and his courtiers from a pulpit at the Palace of Whitehall. Published in John Foxe's Acts and Monuments in 1563

Cranmer was also influenced by the views of the continental reformer Martin Bucer, who died in England in 1551; by Peter Martyr, who was teaching at Oxford; and by other foreign theologians.

John Calvin

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French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
William Farel was the reformer who persuaded Calvin to stay in Geneva. 16th-century painting. In the Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral, the main church in Geneva.
Idelette and Calvin had no children survive infancy.
Sixteenth-century portrait of John Calvin by an unknown artist. From the collection of the Bibliothèque de Genève (Library of Geneva)
Michael Servetus exchanged many letters with Calvin until he was denounced by Calvin and executed.
John Calvin at 53 years old in an engraving by René Boyvin
The Collège Calvin is now a college preparatory school for the Swiss Maturité.
Traditional grave of Calvin in the Cimetière de Plainpalais in Geneva; the exact location of his grave is unknown.
Title page from the final edition of Calvin's magnum opus, Institutio Christiane Religionis, which summarises his theology.
Joachim Westphal disagreed with Calvin's theology on the eucharist.
Calvin wrote many letters to religious and political leaders throughout Europe, including this one sent to Edward VI of England.
Portrait of Calvin by Titian
The last moments of Calvin (Barcelona: Montaner y Simón, 1880–1883)
John Calvin memorial medal by László Szlávics, Jr., 2008

Several leading divines, either Calvinist or those sympathetic to Calvinism, settled in England (Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr, and Jan Laski) and Scotland (John Knox).

Portrait by Hendrik Hondius I

Girolamo Zanchi

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Italian Protestant Reformation clergyman and educator who influenced the development of Reformed theology during the years following John Calvin's death.

Italian Protestant Reformation clergyman and educator who influenced the development of Reformed theology during the years following John Calvin's death.

Portrait by Hendrik Hondius I

After completing his studies, he went to Lucca, and there under the influence of Peter Martyr Vermigli he opted for a theological career, being especially impressed by Vermigli's lectures on Romans.

Catholics give adoration to Christ, whom they believe to be really present, in body and blood, soul and divinity, in sacramental bread whose reality has been changed into that of his body.

Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

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Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically, but in a true, real and substantial way.

Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically, but in a true, real and substantial way.

Catholics give adoration to Christ, whom they believe to be really present, in body and blood, soul and divinity, in sacramental bread whose reality has been changed into that of his body.
A 3rd-century fresco in the Catacomb of Callixtus, interpreted by the archaeologist Joseph Wilpert as showing on the left Jesus multiplying bread and fish, a symbol of the Eucharistic consecration, and on the right a representation of the deceased, who through participation in the Eucharist has obtained eternal happiness
Ecce Agnus Dei ("Behold the Lamb of God") at Solemn Mass
Eastern Orthodox Divine Liturgy.
A notice about the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist in Mikael Agricola Church, Helsinki.
Eucharist in an Episcopal church
A United Methodist minister consecrates the elements
A Scottish Sacrament, by Henry John Dobson

Among these were Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Bernardino Ochino, Paul Fagius, and Jan Łaski.