Petroleum

crude oiloilcrudecrude petroleumgreaseoil and gasconventional oilpetroleum productspetroleum fueloil products
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.wikipedia
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Petroleum product

petroleum productsOil Productsrefined products
The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil.
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries.

Gasoline

petrolgasleaded gasoline
It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into numerous consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics, pesticides and pharmaceuticals.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a colorless petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

Kerosene

paraffinparaffin oilkerosine
It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into numerous consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics, pesticides and pharmaceuticals.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

Fossil fuel

fossil fuelsoil and gasOil & Gas
A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure.
Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

Hydrocarbon

hydrocarbonsliquid hydrocarbonHC
It consists of naturally occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds.
Most hydrocarbons found on Earth naturally occur in petroleum, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains.

Fuel

fuelsenergy-richFuel type
It is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
Crude oil was distilled by Persian chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.

Mineral oil

petroleum oiloilparaffin oil
In the 19th century, the term petroleum was often used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal (and later oil shale) and refined oils produced from them; in the United Kingdom, storage (and later transport) of these oils were regulated by a series of Petroleum Acts, from the Petroleum Act 1863 onwards.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum, as distinct from usually edible vegetable oils.

Continuous distillation

distillationcontinuoustrays
It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into numerous consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics, pesticides and pharmaceuticals.
When distilling crude oil or a similar feedstock, each fraction contains many components of similar volatility and other properties.

Internal combustion engine

engineinternal combustioninternal combustion engines
The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, and the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry, particularly the synthesis of plastics, fertilisers, solvents, adhesives and pesticides.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil.

Paraffin wax

paraffinwaxcandle wax
The production of these oils and solid paraffin wax from coal formed the subject of his patent dated 17 October 1850.
Paraffin wax (or petroleum wax) is a soft colorless solid, derived from petroleum, coal or shale oil, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.

Tar

wood tartar kilnTars
The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region.
Tar can be produced from coal, wood, petroleum, or peat.

Edwin Drake

Edwin L. DrakePennsylvania Rock Oil CompanySeneca Oil Company
Edwin Drake's 1859 well near Titusville, Pennsylvania, is popularly considered the first modern well.
Edwin Laurentine Drake (March 29, 1819 – November 9, 1880), also known as Colonel Drake, was an American businessman and the first American to successfully drill for oil.

History of the petroleum industry in Canada

first commercial oil wellLeducTransmountain Pipeline
The first commercial oil well in Canada became operational in 1858 at Oil Springs, Ontario (then Canada West).
The evolution of the petroleum sector has been a key factor in the history of Canada, and helps illustrate how the country became quite distinct from her neighbour to the south.

Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan

Baku oil fieldsOil industry in Azerbaijanoil industry
The German invasion of the Soviet Union included the goal to capture the Baku oilfields, as it would provide much needed oil-supplies for the German military which was suffering from blockades.
Its history is linked to the fortunes of petroleum.

Natural gas

gasgas-firednatural-gas
On January 16, 1862, after an explosion of natural gas Canada's first oil gusher came into production, shooting into the air at a recorded rate of 3,000 barrels per day.
Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found close to and with natural gas.

Hydraulic fracturing

frackinghydraulic frackinghydrofracking
In 2018, due in part to developments in hydraulic fracturing and horizonal drilling, the United States became the world's largest producer.
The process involves the high-pressure injection of 'fracking fluid' (primarily water, containing sand or other proppants suspended with the aid of thickening agents) into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely.

Asphalt

bitumenbituminoustarmac
It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into numerous consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics, pesticides and pharmaceuticals.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

Fractionating column

distillation columndistillation columnsfractionation column
Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.
Such industries are the petroleum processing, petrochemical production, natural gas processing, coal tar processing, brewing, liquified air separation, and hydrocarbon solvents production and similar industries but it finds its widest application in petroleum refineries.

Yenangyaung

Yenangyaung oil fieldsYenangyaung 1945Yenangyaung oilfields
Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production.
The principal product is petroleum.

Export Land Model

declines in the amount of petroleum
Viability of the oil commodity is controlled by several key parameters: number of vehicles in the world competing for fuel; quantity of oil exported to the world market (Export Land Model); net energy gain (economically useful energy provided minus energy consumed); political stability of oil exporting nations; and ability to defend oil supply lines.
It models the decline in oil exports that result when an exporting nation experiences both a peak in oil production and an increase in domestic oil consumption.

Propane

propane gaspropane tankliquid propane
Under surface pressure and temperature conditions, lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethane, propane and butane exist as gases, while pentane and heavier hydrocarbons are in the form of liquids or solids.
A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel.

Oil well

oil drillingwellwells
An oil well produces predominantly crude oil, with some natural gas dissolved in it.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.

Light crude oil

light crudelightlight oil
At surface conditions these will condense out of the gas to form "natural gas condensate", often shortened to condensate. Condensate resembles gasoline in appearance and is similar in composition to some volatile light crude oils.
Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature.

Petroleum reservoir

oil fieldnatural gas fieldoilfield
In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around modern Baku, Azerbaijan.
In case of conventional reservoirs, the naturally occurring hydrocarbons, such as crude oil or natural gas, are trapped by overlying rock formations with lower permeability.

Unconventional oil

unconventional resourcesunconventionalnon-conventional oil
These oil sands resources are called unconventional oil to distinguish them from oil which can be extracted using traditional oil well methods.
Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.