Peyote

Lophophora williamsiipeyotlAnhalonium lewiniiL. williamsiiPeyote cactuspeyote visionPeyote § Cultural significance
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.wikipedia
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Mescaline

mescalinmescaline hydrochloridesynthetic mescaline
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline. Peyote contains the hallucinogen mescaline.
It occurs naturally in the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii), the San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi), the Peruvian torch (Echinopsis peruviana), and other members of the plant family Cactaceae.

Nahuatl

Nahuatl languageNáhuatlNahua
Peyote is a Spanish word derived from the Nahuatl, or Aztec, peyōtl, meaning "glisten" or "glistening".
[[List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas#Words from Nahuatl|English words of Nahuatl origin]] include "avocado", "chayote", "chili", "chocolate", "atlatl", "coyote", "peyote", "axolotl" and "tomato".

Psychoactive cactus

Psychoactive cacticactipsychoactive alkaloids
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Trichocereus pachanoi), and Lophophora, with peyote (Lophophora williamsii) being the most psychoactive species.

Lophophora

The various species of the genus Lophophora grow low to the ground and they often form groups with numerous, crowded shoots.
Lophophora has been reported to have two species, L. diffusa and L. williamsii.

Hallucinogen

hallucinogenicpsychedelic drughallucinogens
Peyote contains the hallucinogen mescaline.
In some places peyote is classified as 'sacrament' for part of religious ceremonies, and is legally condoned for such use.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
Known for its psychoactive properties when ingested, peyote is used worldwide, having a long history of ritualistic and medicinal use by indigenous North Americans.
Native Americans have used peyote cacti containing mescaline for religious ceremonies for as long as 5700 years.

Louis Lewin

Louis Lewin described Anhalonium lewinii in 1888.
In 1887 he received his first sample of the Peyote cactus from Dallas, Texas-based physician Joseph Raleigh Briggs (1851-1907), and later published the first methodical analysis of it, causing a variant to be named Anhalonium lewinii in his honor.

Native American Church

PeyotismPeyote Religionpeyote roadman
Under the auspices of what came to be known as the Native American Church, in the 19th century, American Indians in more widespread regions to the north began to use peyote in religious practices, as part of a revival of native spirituality.
The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.

San Luis Potosí

San Luis PotosiS.L.P.San Luís Potosí
It is found primarily in the Chihuahuan Desert and in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosí among scrub.
The mountain is an important site for the Huichol ceremonial migration, Peyote hunt, and deer dance.

Echinopsis pachanoi

San Pedro cactusSan PedroHuachuca
More rapid growth can be achieved by grafting peyote onto mature San Pedro root stock.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic drug and entheogen, which is also found in some other species of genus Echinopsis (i.e. Echinopsis lageniformis, Echinopsis peruviana, and Echinopsis scopulicola) and the species Lophophora williamsii (peyote).

Huichol

Huichol peopleHuicholsWixarika
From earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by indigenous peoples, such as the Huichol of northern Mexico and by various Native American tribes, native to or relocated to the Southern Plains states of present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
Once yearly, some Huichol journey back to San Luís, their ancestral homeland to perform "Mitote" Peyote (Hikuri, in Wixarika) ceremonies.

Peyote Way Church of God, Inc. v. Thornburgh

This law has been codified as a statute in the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978, and made part of the common law in Peyote Way Church of God, Inc. v. Thornburgh, (5th Cir.
Peyote Way Church of God, Inc. v. Thornburgh was a court case decided by the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in which the Peyote Way Church of God challenged an exemption in the Controlled Substances Act that permitted members of the Native American Church to use peyote in religious ceremonies while not giving the same exemption to members of other churches.

Comanche

ComanchesComanche NationComanche people
They were also the principal group to introduce peyote to newly arrived migrants, such as the Comanche and Kiowa from the Northern Plains.
Parker also campaigned for the Comanches' permission to practice the Native American Church religious rites, such as the usage of peyote, which was condemned by European Americans.

Employment Division v. Smith

Employment Div. Dep't of Human Resources v. SmithEmployment Div., Dept. of Human Resources of Ore. v. SmithEmployment Division of Oregon
US jurisdictions enacted these specific statutory exemptions in reaction to the US Supreme Court's decision in Employment Division v. Smith, which held that laws prohibiting the use of peyote that do not specifically exempt religious use nevertheless do not violate the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment.
Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990), is a United States Supreme Court case that held that the state could deny unemployment benefits to a person fired for violating a state prohibition on the use of peyote, even though the use of the drug was part of a religious ritual.

Ariocarpus

AnhaloniumRoseocactus
The US Dispensatory lists peyote under the name Anhalonium, and states it can be used in various preparations for neurasthenia, hysteria and asthma.
The species Lophophora williamsii (peyote) was placed in Anhalonium at one time, although not in Ariocarpus.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Schedule IVamphetamine-type stimulantsSchedule I
Article 32 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances allows nations to exempt certain traditional uses of substances from prohibition:
Several of the substances originally placed in Schedule I are psychedelic drugs which are contained in natural plants and fungi (such as peyote and psilocybin mushrooms) and which have long been used in religious or healing rituals.

Arthur Heffter

Arthur Heffter conducted self experiments on its effects in 1897.
He isolated mescaline from the peyote cactus in 1897, the first such isolation of a naturally occurring psychedelic substance in pure form.

Ute people

UteUtesUte tribe
Traditional Navajo belief or ceremonial practice did not mention the use of peyote before its introduction by the neighboring Utes.
The Native American Church is another source of spiritual life for some Ute, where followers believe that "God reveals Himself in Peyote."

Peyote song

Bobcat singerspeyote
They are typically accompanied by a rattle and water drum, and are used in a ceremonial aspect during the sacramental taking of peyote.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Peyote can have strong emetic effects, and one death has been attributed to esophageal bleeding caused by vomiting after peyote ingestion in a Native American patient with a history of alcohol abuse.

Carlos Castaneda

Don Juan MatusTensegrityCastaneda
The term nagual has been used by anthropologists to mean a shaman or sorcerer who claims to be able to change into an animal form, or to metaphorically "shift" into another form through magic rituals, shamanism and experiences with psychoactive drugs (e.g. peyote and jimson weed).

Free Exercise Clause

free exercise of religionfree exerciseFree Exercise Clause of the First Amendment
US jurisdictions enacted these specific statutory exemptions in reaction to the US Supreme Court's decision in Employment Division v. Smith, which held that laws prohibiting the use of peyote that do not specifically exempt religious use nevertheless do not violate the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment.
Examining a state prohibition on the use of peyote, the Supreme Court upheld the law despite the drug's use as part of a religious ritual, and without employing the strict scrutiny test.

Cactus

Cactaceaecacticactus family
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Two species have a long history of use by the indigenous peoples of the Americas: peyote, Lophophora williamsii, in North America, and the San Pedro cactus, Echinopsis pachanoi, in South America.