Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytosephagotrophyphagotrophicphagocytizeengulfphagocytizedphagocytosingphagotroph
Phagocytosis is the process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle (≥ 0.5 μm), giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.wikipedia
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Phagosome

phagosomesphagocytic vacuolephagosomal
Phagocytosis is the process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle (≥ 0.5 μm), giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.
In cell biology, a phagosome is a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte via phagocytosis.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
In a multicellular organism's immune system, phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris.
These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system.

Endocytosis

endocytosedendocyticinternalization
It is one type of endocytosis.
Endocytosis includes pinocytosis (cell drinking) and phagocytosis (cell eating).

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and eosinophils can be classified as professional phagocytes.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós) = large, φαγεῖν (phagein) = to eat ) are a type of white blood cell, of the immune system, that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the type of proteins specific to healthy body cells on its surface in a process called phagocytosis.

Opsonin

opsonizationopsonizedopsonisation
The first, opsonic receptors, are dependent on opsonins.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).

Complement system

complementcomplement cascadecomplement activation
Among these are receptors that recognise the Fc part of bound IgG antibodies, deposited complement or receptors, that recognise other opsonins of cell or plasma origin.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation, and attack the pathogen's cell membrane.

Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune response
Phagocytosis is one of the main mechanisms of the innate immune defense.
By helping to remove dead cells preceding growth and development of new healthy cells, phagocytosis is an important part of the healing process following tissue injury.

Fc receptor

Fc receptorsFcγ receptorsFc
Macrophages initiate phagocytosis by mannose receptors, scavenger receptors, Fcγ receptors and complement receptors 1, 3 and 4.
Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

Neutrophil

neutrophilsneutrophil granulocyteneutrophilic
Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and eosinophils can be classified as professional phagocytes.
Neutrophils will be removed after phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
Phagocytosis is the process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle (≥ 0.5 μm), giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.
Endocytosis is a pathway for internalizing solid particles ("cell eating" or phagocytosis), small molecules and ions ("cell drinking" or pinocytosis), and macromolecules.

Protozoa

protozoanprotozoanspellicle
Some protozoa use phagocytosis as means to obtain nutrients.
Some protozoans take in food by phagocytosis, engulfing organic particles with pseudopodia (as amoebae do), or taking in food through a specialized mouth-like aperture called a cytostome.

Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich MechnikovIlya MechnikovElie Metchnikoff
Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler (1876), and later studied and named by Élie Metchnikoff (1880, 1883).
At Messina he discovered phagocytosis after experimenting on the larvae of starfish.

Monocyte

monocytesmonocyticmononuclear
Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and eosinophils can be classified as professional phagocytes.
These are phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and cytokine production.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
Neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and eosinophils can be classified as professional phagocytes.
Immature dendritic cells may also phagocytose small quantities of membrane from live own cells, in a process called nibbling.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
It is one of the first processes responding to infection, and is also one of the initiating branches of an adaptive immune response.

C3b

complement c3b
These receptors recognise targets coated in C3b, C4b and C3bi from plasma complement.
C3b is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes (antigen-antibody), and apoptotic cells for phagocytosis.

Complement receptor

complement receptorsCR4
Macrophages initiate phagocytosis by mannose receptors, scavenger receptors, Fcγ receptors and complement receptors 1, 3 and 4.
Complement receptor (CR) 1, 3, and 4 work as opsonins (stimulate phagocytosis), whereas CR2 is expressed only on B cells as a co-receptor.

Phagolysosome

endolysosomephagolysosomesphagosome
It then moves toward the centrosome of the phagocyte and is fused with lysosomes, forming a phagolysosome and leading to degradation.
In biology, a phagolysosome, or endolysosome, is a cytoplasmic body formed by the fusion of a phagosome with a lysosome in a process that occurs during phagocytosis. Formation of phagolysosomes is essential for the intracellular destruction of microorganisms and pathogens.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
Leukocytes generate hydrogen cyanide during phagocytosis, and can kill bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens by generating several other toxic chemicals.
Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic.

Complement receptor 1

CR1CD35Complement component receptor 1
In macrophages, the CR1, CR3 and CR4 are responsible for recognition of targets.
It has been shown that CR1 can act as a negative regulator of the complement cascade, mediate immune adherence and phagocytosis and inhibit both the classic and alternative pathways.

Scavenger receptor (immunology)

scavenger receptorscavenger receptorsclass B scavenger receptor
Macrophages initiate phagocytosis by mannose receptors, scavenger receptors, Fcγ receptors and complement receptors 1, 3 and 4.

Efferocytosis

Following apoptosis, the dying cells need to be taken up into the surrounding tissues by macrophages in a process called efferocytosis.
In cell biology, efferocytosis (from efferre, Latin for 'to take to the grave', 'to bury') is the process by which dying/dead cells (e.g. apoptotic or necrotic) are removed by phagocytic cells.

Immunoglobulin G

IgGIgG1IgG4
Among these are receptors that recognise the Fc part of bound IgG antibodies, deposited complement or receptors, that recognise other opsonins of cell or plasma origin.

Lysosome

lysosomallysosomeslysosomal enzymes
It then moves toward the centrosome of the phagocyte and is fused with lysosomes, forming a phagolysosome and leading to degradation.
Similarly, they are able to break-down virus particles or bacteria in phagocytosis of macrophages.

Staphylococcus aureus

S. aureusstaph infectionStaph. aureus
Some bacteria, for example Treponema pallidum, Escheria coli and Staphylococcus aureus, are able to avoid phagocytosis by several mechanisms.
S. aureus produces various enzymes such as coagulase (bound and free coagulases) which clots plasma and coats the bacterial cell, probably to prevent phagocytosis.