Pharmaceutical industry

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The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered (or self-administered) to patients, with the aim to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate the symptoms.wikipedia
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Parke-Davis

Parke, Davis & CoParke, Davis & Co.Hervey Coke Parke
Industrial chemist Jōkichi Takamine later developed a method for obtaining epinephrine in a pure state, and licensed the technology to Parke-Davis.
Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.

Smith, Kline & French

Smith, Kline and FrenchSmithKline BeckmanSmith Kline and French
Amphetamine was developed by Smith, Kline and French as a nasal decongestant under the trade name Benzedrine Inhaler. Amphetamine was eventually developed for the treatment of narcolepsy, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, and mood elevation in depression and other psychiatric indications.
Smith, Kline & French (SKF) was an American pharmaceutical company.

Drug discovery

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Intentional drug discovery from plants began with the isolation between 1803 and 1805 of morphine - an analgesic and sleep-inducing agent - from opium by the German apothecary assistant Friedrich Sertürner, who named the compound after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus.
Modern drug discovery is thus usually a capital-intensive process that involves large investments by pharmaceutical industry corporations as well as national governments (who provide grants and loan guarantees).

Bayer

Bayer AGBayer CropScienceBayer HealthCare
The discovery was patented and licensed to Bayer pharmaceuticals, which marketed the compound under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904.
Bayer AG is a German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

GlaxoSmithKline

GlaxoSmithKline BeechamGSK
In 1923 parallel efforts by Gaston Ramon at the Pasteur Institute and Alexander Glenny at the Wellcome Research Laboratories (later part of GlaxoSmithKline) led to the discovery that a safer vaccine could be produced by treating diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.

Legal drug trade

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They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting, testing, safety, efficacy and marketing of drugs.
Drugs useful for treating diseases are the object of pharmaceutical research and medical practice, and produced by the pharmaceutical industry, which in theory should be above United Nations legislation prohibiting use or sole possession of the drugs termed illegal for other purposes.

Drug

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The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered (or self-administered) to patients, with the aim to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate the symptoms.
Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them.

Medication

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The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications to be administered (or self-administered) to patients, with the aim to cure them, vaccinate them, or alleviate the symptoms.
Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by pharmaceutical companies, academic scientists, and governments.

Contract research organization

contract research organizationscontract research organisationClinical research organization
More recently, multi-nationals are increasingly relying on contract research organizations to manage drug development.
A contract research organization (CRO) is a company that provides support to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries in the form of research services outsourced on a contract basis.

Pharmaceutical marketing

marketingpharmaceutical advertisingPharmaceuticals
If the cost of these failed drugs is taken into account, the cost of developing a successful new drug (new chemical entity, or NCE), has been estimated at about US$1.3 billion (not including marketing expenses).
Many countries have measures in place to limit advertising by pharmaceutical companies.

AstraZeneca

Astra ZenecaAstraZeneca PharmaceuticalsAstra
AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson and Eli Lilly have paid billions of dollars in federal settlements over allegations that they paid doctors to promote drugs for unapproved uses. Every major company selling the antipsychotics — Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — has either settled recent government cases, under the False Claims Act, for hundreds of millions of dollars or is currently under investigation for possible health care fraud.
AstraZeneca plc is an English-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
Animal trials showed very good inhibitory effect as in clinical trials, however a long term study in dogs found toxic effects at higher doses and as a result mevastatin was believed to be too toxic for human use.
The sponsor may be a governmental organization or a pharmaceutical, biotechnology or medical device company.

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

PhRMAPharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)drug
In response to specific cases in which unfavorable data from pharmaceutical company-sponsored research was not published, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America have published new guidelines urging companies to report all findings and limit the financial involvement in drug companies of researchers.
Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA, pronounced ), formerly known as the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, is a trade group representing companies in the pharmaceutical industry in the United States.

Investigational New Drug

investigational drugINDinvestigational
This process generally involves submission of an Investigational New Drug filing with sufficient pre-clinical data to support proceeding with human trials.
The United States Food and Drug Administration's Investigational New Drug (IND) program is the means by which a pharmaceutical company obtains permission to start human clinical trials and to ship an experimental drug across state lines (usually to clinical investigators) before a marketing application for the drug has been approved.

Sanofi

Sanofi-AventisAventisSanofi Aventis
Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France, the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.

Hoffmann-La Roche

RocheHoffmann–La RocheHoffman-La Roche
F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG is a Swiss multinational healthcare company that operates worldwide under two divisions: Pharmaceuticals and Diagnostics.

Novartis

SandozCiba-GeigyHexal Australia
Novartis International AG, a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland, is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies by both market capitalization and sales.

Good manufacturing practice

Good Manufacturing PracticesGMPcGMP
The FDA received authority to regulate advertising of prescription drugs and to establish good manufacturing practices.
The World Health Organization (WHO) version of GMP is used by pharmaceutical regulators and the pharmaceutical industry in over 100 countries worldwide, primarily in the developing world.

Wyeth

American Home ProductsWyeth PharmaceuticalsA.H. Robins
Wyeth, LLC was an American pharmaceutical company.

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Bristol-MyersBristol Myers SquibbSquibb
Every major company selling the antipsychotics — Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson — has either settled recent government cases, under the False Claims Act, for hundreds of millions of dollars or is currently under investigation for possible health care fraud.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.

Takeda Pharmaceutical Company

TakedaTakeda PharmaceuticalsTakeda Pharmaceutical
Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. is the largest pharmaceutical company in Asia and one of the top 20 largest pharmaceutical companies in the world by revenue (top 10 following merger with Shire).

Novo Nordisk

NovoNovo Nordisk A/SNordisk Insulinlaboratorium
Novo Nordisk A/S is a Danish multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bagsværd, Denmark, with production facilities in eight countries, and affiliates or offices in 5 countries.

Astellas Pharma

AstellasYamanouchi PharmaceuticalAstellas Pharma Inc.
Astellas Pharma Inc. is a Japanese pharmaceutical company, formed on 1 April 2005 from the merger of Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. .

Daiichi Sankyo

SankyoDaiichi Sankyo Co.Daiichi-Sankyo
Daiichi Sankyo Company, Limited is a global pharmaceutical company and the second-largest pharmaceutical company in Japan.

Eisai (company)

EisaiEisai Co.Eisai Co., Ltd.
Eisai Co., Ltd. is a Japanese pharmaceutical company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.