Toledo Pharmacal Company from Toledo, Ohio seen in 1905

Pharmaceutical formulation

- Pharmaceutics

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Pharmaceutical formulation

Toledo Pharmacal Company from Toledo, Ohio seen in 1905

Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product.


Study of the flow of matter, primarily in a fluid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.

Linear structure of cellulose — the most common component of all organic plant life on Earth. * Note the evidence of hydrogen bonding which increases the viscosity at any temperature and pressure. This is an effect similar to that of polymer crosslinking, but less pronounced.
Polymerization process of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and water to form amorphous hydrated silica particles (Si-OH) can be monitored rheologically by a number of different methods.

Rheology has applications in materials science, engineering, geophysics, physiology, human biology and pharmaceutics.

Rio de Janeiro

Second-most populous city in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

Founding of Rio de Janeiro on 1 March 1565
Rio de Janeiro, then de facto capital of the Portuguese Empire, as seen from the terrace of the Convento de Santo Antônio (Convent of St. Anthony), c. 1816
Map of the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1820, then capital of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, with the transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil
Rio de Janeiro, ca.1910s
The Sugarloaf cable car between the 1940s and 1950s
A convoy of tanks along the streets of the city in 1968 during the military rule. At the time, Rio de Janeiro was a city-state, capital of Guanabara.
Satellite view of Greater Rio de Janeiro
Copacabana Beach in a sunny day
Marina da Glória
View of South Zone with Corcovado in the background
Sugarloaf Cable Car approaching the summit
Aerial view of Downtown Rio with the Rio–Niterói Bridge in the background
Aerial view of Fort Copacabana, with Copacabana (right) and Ipanema (left, background)
The iconic Maracanã Stadium
Aqueduct built in the 18th century, as was the entire historic complex of the Colônia Juliano Moreira inside Pedra Branca State Park in Taquara
Barra da Tijuca with Pedra da Gávea in background
Portuguese immigrant in Rio de Janeiro, considered the largest "Portuguese city" outside Portugal.
Christ the Redeemer
Rocinha slum (favela) at night
Treemap showing the market share of exports, by product, for the city of Rio de Janeiro in 2014 generated by DataViva
Downtown Rio, in the financial district of the city
Largo da Carioca, in Downtown Rio
Barra da Tijuca
Botafogo with the Sugarloaf Mountain
Museum of Tomorrow
Center for Human Science of the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro
Superior institute of Education of Rio de Janeiro (ISERJ)
Museum of Modern Art
National Museum of Fine Arts
Brazilian Academy of Letters
Tim Maia, the greatest representative of soul music in the country's history, from Rio de Janeiro.
Municipal Theatre of Rio de Janeiro
City of Arts
New Year's Eve fireworks at Copacabana Beach
The World Stage at the "Rock in Rio" music festival
Banda de Ipanema, one of the largest carnival blocks of the city
Maracanã Stadium
Nilton Santos Olympic Stadium
Estádio São Januário
Estádio Luso Brasileiro
Barra Olympic Park, built for 2016 Summer Olympics
Children playing beach football
Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport
Rio de Janeiro–Santos Dumont National Airport
Port of Rio de Janeiro
Public transport map
Rio de Janeiro Light Rail in Downtown Rio
TransOeste Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Rio de Janeiro ferry
The Santa Teresa Tramway is the oldest operating tram system in South America.
Rio-Niterói Bridge
Bike Rio rental station in Mauá Square, Downtown Rio

For many years Rio was the second largest industrial hub of Brazil, with oil refineries, shipbuilding industries, steel, metallurgy, petrochemicals, cement, pharmaceutical, textile, processed foods and furniture industries.


Semi-solid that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.

An upturned vial of hair gel
Silica gel
Hydrogel of a superabsorbent polymer

Organogels have potential for use in a number of applications, such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, art conservation, and food.

Ignacy Łukasiewicz

Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist.

Łada coat-of-arms
Mikolasch's Gold Star Pharmacy
Galician oil wells
Oil wells, Grabownica Starzeńska, 1930s

Finally on 30 July 1852 Łukasiewicz graduated from the pharmacy department at the University of Vienna, where he earned a master's degree in pharmaceutics.


Capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach and the now subterranean Niamiha rivers.

Trajeckaje pradmiescie
Independence Square in the centre of Minsk.
The Saviour Church, built under the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1577, is part of an archaeological preservation in Zaslavl, 23 km northwest of Minsk.
Minsk in 1772
Church of Sts. Peter and Paul (Russian Orthodox).
Orthodox church of St. Mary Magdalene (built in 1847)
The Jesuit Collegium in 1912.
Belarusian national flag over the building of the People's Secretariat of the Belarusian People's Republic
Meeting in the Kurapaty woods, 1989, where between 1937 and 1941 from 30,000 to 250,000 Belarusian intelligentsia members were murdered by the NKVD during the Great Purge
Children during the German bombing of Minsk on 24 June 1941.
War memorial in Victory Square, Minsk.
German troops marching through Minsk.
Railway Station Square, an example of Stalinist Minsk architecture.
Janka Kupala National Theatre
Independence Avenue (Initial part of avenue candidates for inclusion in World Heritage Site).
Starascinskaja Slabada Squareon the Svislač River.
Panorama to the center of Minsk.
The Svislač River in autumn.
Apartment buildings in Minsk.
Jewish Holocaust memorial "The Pit" in Minsk.
Chinese signage, Minsk railway station (2018).
New synagogue in Minsk
Police during the 2020–21 Belarusian protests.
2020–21 Belarusian protests — Minsk, 30 August 2020.
Power plant.
House of Representatives of Belarus
Victory Square
The city hall (rebuilt in 2003).
Outside view of the Dinamo National Olympic Stadium, 2019.
Dinamo National Olympic Stadium (after reconstruction).
Minsk Arena
Electrobus AKSM E321 in Minsk.
Vakzalnaja station in the Minsk Metro.
Minsk Central Bus Station Nowadays
Stadler Astra train, Minsk train station.
Bike path in Minsk.
Church of St. Mary Magdalene (Russian Orthodox).
Church of Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Roman Catholic).
Church of Holy Trinity (Saint Rochus) (Roman Catholic).
Church of All Saints (Russian Orthodox).
Church of St.Yevfrosinya of Polotsk (Russian Orthodox).
Church of St. Elisabeth Convent (Russian Orthodox)
The Red Church (Roman Catholic).
Church of St.Joseph (formerly Uniate, used as an archive).
Cathedral of Saint Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic).
Minsk Cathedral of the Holy Spirit (Russian Orthodox).
Minsk State Linguistic University.
Faculty of International Relations, Belarusian State University.
Belarus State University rector's office.
Minsk satellite photo, 2019

Belarusian State Technological University. Specialised in chemical and pharmaceutical technology, in printing and forestry. Founded in 1930 as Forestry Institute in Homel. In 1941 evacuated to Sverdlovsk, now Yekaterinburg. Returned to Gomel in 1944, but in 1946 relocated to Minsk as Belarusian Institute of Technology. Upgraded to university level in 1993. Has nine departments.

University of Trieste

Public research university in Trieste in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region in northeast Italy.

The university main building on the Scoglietto hill
Students studying in the university facilities
Faculty of Engineering
Students' house of the University of Trieste
Faculty of Medicine and Surgery
Gorizia campus

Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences


Region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.3 million.

Abruzzo provinces
The church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, as it was before the devastating earthquake of 6 April 2009.
Cathedral of Madonna del Ponte, Lanciano
The Roman site Amiternum
Castello Caldora, Vasto
Giulianova seaside
Gran Sasso d'Italia
Montepulciano grapes.
Travel poster from the 1920s.
Salinello Bridge on the A14
Castel del Monte, one of Abruzzo's little-known hill towns
Gabriele d'Annunzio from Pescara
Abbazia di San Liberatore a Majella (Serramonacesca)
Ovid from Sulmona
Cathedral of San Giustino (Chieti)
Fishing trabucco of San Vito Chietino
The fortress of Civitella is the most visited monument in Abruzzo
View of Casoli
Roccascalegna fortress
Medieval village of Scanno
Campus of University "Gabriele d'Annunzio"
"Arrosticini" of Pescara valley
"Spaghettoni alla chitarra" of Teramo
Typical "bocconotto" of Castel Frentano
"Sise delle Monache" from Guardiagrele
A Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine labelled as being made from old vines.
Campo Imperatore
Abruzzo Chamois
San Vito Chietino
Apollo Butterfly in Gran Sasso
Lake Scanno
Maiella massif
Ponte sul mare in Pescara
Campo Felice
Abruzzo Wild boars
Ortona seaside
Prati di Tivo ski slopes
Rocca Calascio
Duomo of Teramo
L'Aquila 99 Spouts Fountain
San Bernardino Basilica in L'Aquila
Lanciano basilica
Church of SS Annunziata in Sulmona
Shrine of Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows
Palazzo Savini in Teramo

In the applied research field, there are major institutes and enterprises involved in the fields of pharmaceutics, biomedicine, electronics, aerospace and nuclear physics.


Investigative procedure in laboratory medicine, mining, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity.

Clinical laboratory in a hospital setting showing several automated analysers.

Assays have become a routine part of modern medical, environmental, pharmaceutical, and forensic technology.

King Saud University

Public university in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, founded in 1957 by King Saud bin Abdulaziz as Riyadh University, as the first university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

King Saud
King Saud University entrance
The Palm Mosque, (Jama’a Al-Nakheel)
King Saud University Entrance Gate by Basil Al Bayati
College of Medicine

There are five academic departments: Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy and Clinical Pharmacy.