Pharmacology

pharmacologistpharmacologicalpharmacologicallypharmacologicpharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalsbehavioral pharmacologydrug treatmentpharmacologistsclinical pharmacologist
Pharmacology is the branch of pharmaceutical sciences which is concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).wikipedia
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Mechanism of action

mechanisms of actionmechanismmechanisms
The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, chemical biology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

Biological activity

bioactivebiologically activebioactivity
Pharmacology is the branch of pharmaceutical sciences which is concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.

Drug

drugsagentserum
Pharmacology is the branch of pharmaceutical sciences which is concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In pharmacology, a drug is a chemical substance, typically of known structure, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect.

Pharmacokinetics

pharmacokineticsteady-stateSteady-state levels
The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determine the fate of substances administered to a living organism.

Receptor (biochemistry)

receptorreceptorscellular receptors
In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, receptors are chemical structures, composed of protein, that receive and transduce signals that may be integrated into biological systems.

Pharmacy

pharmaciespharmaceutical sciencesdrugstore
Pharmacology is the branch of pharmaceutical sciences which is concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In its investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients, the work of the pharma may be regarded as a precursor of the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology, prior to the formulation of the scientific method.

Chemical biology

Chemicalchemical biologistbiological chemist
The field encompasses drug composition and properties, synthesis and drug design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, chemical biology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.
Chemical biology has scientific, historical and philosophical roots in medicinal chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, pharmacology, genetics, biochemistry, and metabolic engineering.

Pharmacodynamics

duration of actionpharmacodynamicduration
The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are the main branches of pharmacology, being itself a topic of biology interested in the study of the interactions between both endogenous and exogenous chemical substances with living organisms.

Clinical pharmacology

clinical pharmacologistClinical Pharmacologistspharmacologically
The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages, with pharmacognosy and Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, and John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas.
It is underpinned by the basic science of pharmacology, with an added focus on the application of pharmacological principles and quantitative methods in the real human patient's population.

Herbal medicine

herbalistherbalismherbal remedies
Early pharmacology focused on herbalism and natural substances, mainly plant extracts.
Paraherbalism differs from plant-derived medicines in standard pharmacology because it does not isolate or standardize biologically active compounds, but rather relies on the belief that preserving various substances from a given source with less processing is safer or more effective – for which there is no evidence.

John of St Amand

The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages, with pharmacognosy and Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, and John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas.
1230–1303), also known as Jean de Saint-Amand and Johannes de Sancto Amando, was a Medieval author on pharmacology, teaching at the University of Paris.

Rudolf Buchheim

The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects.
Rudolf Buchheim (1 March 1820 – 25 December 1879) was a German pharmacologist born in Bautzen (Budziszyn).

Pharmacognosy

pharmacognosistpharmacognocistPharmacognosis
The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages, with pharmacognosy and Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, and John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas.
Other definitions are more encompassing, drawing on a broad spectrum of biological subjects, including botany, ethnobotany, marine biology, microbiology, herbal medicine, chemistry, biotechnology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice.

Organ bath

The development of the organ bath preparation, where tissue samples are connected to recording devices, such as a myograph, and physiological responses are recorded after drug application, allowed analysis of drugs' effects on tissues.
It is used in pharmacology research, particularly when studying the contraction of smooth muscle in tissues such as ileum, colon, vas deferens, trachea, bladder, corpus cavernosum, and blood vessels such as aortic rings.

Medication

pharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalspharmaceutical drug
Pharmacology is the branch of pharmaceutical sciences which is concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.

Drug discovery

discovereddiscoverydrug candidate
Pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of drugs related to an organism's entire genome.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.

Ligand binding assay

radioligand bindingreceptor binding assayaffinity assay
The development of the ligand binding assay in 1945 allowed quantification of the binding affinity of drugs at chemical targets.
Ligand binding assays are used primarily in pharmacology for various demands.

Pharmacogenomics

pharmacogeneticspharmacogenomicpoor metabolizer
Pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of drugs related to an organism's entire genome.
Its name (pharmaco- + genomics) reflects its combining of pharmacology and genomics.

Toxicology

toxicologisttoxicologicaltoxicologists
Pharmacology is closely related to toxicology.
Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.

Neuropsychopharmacology

neuropsychopharmacologistneuropharmacologicalneuropsychopharmacological
The related field of neuropsychopharmacology focuses on the effects of drugs at the overlap between the nervous system and the psyche.
The groundwork is currently being paved for the next generation of pharmacological treatments which will improve quality of life with increasing efficiency.

Medicinal chemistry

pharmaceutical chemistrymedicinal chemistmedicinal properties
Drug development uses techniques from medicinal chemistry to chemically design drugs.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

Lead compound

leadlead compoundsleads
After a lead compound has been identified through drug discovery, drug development involves bringing the drug to the market.
A lead compound (, i.e. a "leading" compound, not to be confused with various compounds of the metallic element lead) in drug discovery is a chemical compound that has pharmacological or biological activity likely to be therapeutically useful, but may nevertheless have suboptimal structure that requires modification to fit better to the target; lead drugs offer the prospect of being followed by back-up compounds.

Pharmacometrics

Theoretical pharmacology uses pharmacometrics, which are mathematical models of biology, pharmacology, disease, and physiology used to describe and quantify interactions between drugs with pharmacology, including beneficial effects and adverse effects.
Pharmacometrics uses models based on pharmacology, physiology and disease for quantitative analysis of interactions between drugs and patients.

Efficacy

efficaciouseffectivenesseffective
Experimental pharmacology involves the study of pharmacology through bioassay, to test the efficacy and potency of a drug.
The word comes from the same roots as effectiveness, and it has often been used synonymously, although in pharmacology a distinction is now often made between efficacy and effectiveness.

Safety pharmacology

pharmacologicaltarget animal safety
Safety pharmacology specialises in detecting and investigating potential undesirable effects of drugs.
Safety pharmacology is a branch of pharmacology specialising in detecting and investigating potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of new chemical entities (NCEs) on physiological functions in relation to exposure in the therapeutic range and above.