Phenakistiscope

phenakistoscopephénakisticopeearly moving picturephantasmascopephenakistiskopphénakistiscope
The phénakisticope (better known as phenakistiscope or the later misspelling phenakistoscope) was the first widespread animation device that created a fluid illusion of motion.wikipedia
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Animation

animatedanimated film3D animation
The phénakisticope (better known as phenakistiscope or the later misspelling phenakistoscope) was the first widespread animation device that created a fluid illusion of motion.
Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, zoetrope, flip book, praxinoscope and film.

Zoetrope

3D zoetropemoving picture advertisingthree-dimensional zoetrope
Unlike the zoetrope and other successors, common versions of the phénakisticope could only practically be viewed by one person at a time.
The zoetrope works on the same principle as its predecessor, the phenakistoscope, but is more convenient and allows the animation to be viewed by several people at the same time.

Joseph Plateau

PlateauJ. Plateau
Inventor Joseph Plateau did not give a name for the device when he first published about it in January 1833, but used 'phénakisticope' later that year in another article to refer to the published versions that he was not involved with. The phenakisticope was invented almost simultaneously around December 1832 by the Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and the Austrian professor of practical geometry Simon Stampfer.
He called this device of 1832 the phenakistiscope.

Anorthoscope

anorthoscopic discs
In a letter to the same scientific periodical dated December 5, 1829 he presented his (still nameless) Anorthoscope, a disc that turns an anamorphic picture into a normal picture when it is spun fast and seen through the four radial slits of a counter-rotating black disc.
It was invented in 1829 by Joseph Plateau before further studies on the same principle led to his invention of animation through the phénakisticope in 1832.

Simon von Stampfer

von Stampfer, Simon
The phenakisticope was invented almost simultaneously around December 1832 by the Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and the Austrian professor of practical geometry Simon Stampfer.
Almost simultaneously similar devices were produced independently in Belgium (the phenakistiskop), and Britain (the zoetrope).

Franz von Uchatius

Franz von Uchatius possibly read about Naylor's idea in German or Austrian technical journals and started to develop his own version around 1851.
He invented a motion picture projector in 1853, developing it over the years from 1845 from the device then called stroboscope (Simon von Stampfer) and phenakistiscope (Joseph Plateau).

Alphonse Giroux

The term phénakisticope was probably first used by the French company Alphonse Giroux et Compagnie in their application for an import license (29 May 1833) and this name was used on their box sets.
introduced the Phénakisticope in France, as one of the first companies to publish the animation device after it was more or less simultaneously invented in Belgium and Austria.

Peter Mark Roget

RogetDr. RogerRoget, Peter Mark
He later read Peter Mark Roget's 1824 article Explanation of an optical deception in the appearance of the spokes of a wheel when seen through vertical apertures which addressed the same illusion.
While Roget's explanation of the illusion was probably wrong, his consideration of the illusion of motion is seen as an important point in the history of film, and possibly influenced the development of the thaumatrope, the phenakistiscope and the zoetrope.

Zoopraxiscope

Eadward Muybridge created his Zoopraxiscope in 1879 and lectured until 1894 with this projector for glass discs on which pictures in transparent paint were derived from his chronophotographic plates.
The projector was related to other projecting phenakistiscopes and used some slotted metal shutter discs that were interchangeable for different picture disks or different effects on the screen.

Flip book

flipbookflip-bookflip-books
Flip book
It has sometimes been assumed that the relatively simple flip book has been around since long before the invention of the more complicated 19th century animation devices like the phenakistiscope (1832) and the zoetrope (1866), but no conclusive evidence has been found.

History of animation

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History of animation
In 1833 the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, and would also provide the basis for cinematography.

History of film

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History of film
stroboscopic "persistence of vision" animation devices (phénakisticope since 1832, zoetrope since 1866, flip book since 1868)

Thaumatrope

thaumatropes
Thaumatrope
Thaumatropes can provide an illusion of motion with the two sides of the disc each depicting a different phase of the motion, but no examples are known to have been produced until long after the introduction of the first widespread animation device: the phénakistiscope.

Stroboscope

stroboscopicstroboscopystrobe
In 1956 Red Raven Movie Records started a series of 78 RPM 8" singles with animations to be viewed with a device with small mirrors similar to a praxinoscope to be placed on the center of the disc. Since 2010 audio-visual duo Sculpture has released several picture discs with very elaborate animations to be viewed under a stroboscope flashing exactly 25 times per second or filmed with a video camera shooting progressively at a very high shutter speed with a frame rate of 25fps.
Plateau called his device the "Phenakistoscope".

Precursors of film

pre-filmoptical toyspre-cinema
Precursors of film
Other mechanisms followed: in 1832 Joseph Plateau created the Anorthoscope and Phenakistiscope; in 1833 Simon Stampler developed the Stroboscope; in 1853, Franz von Uchatius invented the Kinetoscope which projected moving drawings;

GIF

animated GIF.gifgifs
Like a GIF animation, it can only show a short continuous loop.

Le Figaro

FigaroLe Figaro IllustréLe Figaro Littéraire
When it was introduced in the French newspaper Le Figaro in June 1833, the term 'phénakisticope' was explained to be from the root Greek word 'phenakisticos' (or rather φενακίζειν - phenakizein), meaning "to deceive" or "to cheat", and ὄψ - óps, meaning "eye" or "face", so it was probably intended as a transliteration of 'optical deception' or 'optical illusion'.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
When it was introduced in the French newspaper Le Figaro in June 1833, the term 'phénakisticope' was explained to be from the root Greek word 'phenakisticos' (or rather φενακίζειν - phenakizein), meaning "to deceive" or "to cheat", and ὄψ - óps, meaning "eye" or "face", so it was probably intended as a transliteration of 'optical deception' or 'optical illusion'.

Lithography

lithographlithographerlithographs
Most commercially produced discs are lithographic prints that were colored by hand, but also multi-color lithography and other printing techniques have been used by some manufacturers.

Michael Faraday

FaradayFaraday, MichaelSir Michael Faraday
On 10 December 1830 Michael Faraday presented a paper at the Royal Institution of Great Britain called On a Peculiar Class of Optical Deceptions about the optical illusions that could be found in rotating wheels.

Royal Institution

Royal Institution of Great BritainMRIRoyal Institute
On 10 December 1830 Michael Faraday presented a paper at the Royal Institution of Great Britain called On a Peculiar Class of Optical Deceptions about the optical illusions that could be found in rotating wheels.

Phantasmagoria

phantasmagoricphantasmagorical
He believed that if the manner of producing the illusions could be somehow modified, they could be put to other uses, "for example, in phantasmagoria".

Adolphe Quetelet

QueteletQuetelet, AdolpheLambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet
Publisher and Plateau's doctoral adviser Adolphe Quetelet claimed to have received a working model to present to Faraday as early as November 1832.

Thomas Talbot Bury

Talbot BuryBury
Ackermann & Co soon published two more sets of six discs each, one designed by Thomas Talbot Bury and one by Thomas Mann Baynes.