Phenetics

pheneticpheneticallyphenetic analysesphenetic variabilitypheneticiststaximetrics
In biology, phenetics (phainein - to appear), also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation.wikipedia
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Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
In biology, phenetics (phainein - to appear), also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation.
Biologists organize and analyze evolutionary relationships through various methods, including phylogenetics, phenetics, and cladistics.

Numerical taxonomy

numerical taxonomiststaxonometric
It is closely related to numerical taxonomy which is concerned with the use of numerical methods for taxonomic classification.
They divided the field into phenetics in which classifications are formed based on the patterns of overall similarities and cladistics in which classifications are based on the branching patterns of the estimated evolutionary history of the taxa.

Cladistics

cladisticcladistic analysisclade
Phenetics has largely been superseded by cladistics for research into evolutionary relationships among species. Phenetic analyses are unrooted, that is, they do not distinguish between plesiomorphies, traits that are inherited from an ancestor, and apomorphies, traits that evolved anew in one or several lineages.
From the time of his original formulation until the end of the 1970s, cladistics competed as an analytical and philosophical approach to systematics with phenetics and so-called evolutionary taxonomy.

Songbird

songbirdssong birdoscine
Consider for example songbirds.
In contrast, Sibley & Alquist's "Corvida" is a phylogenetic grade, and an artefact of the phenetic methodology.

Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy of birds

Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomySibley and AhlquistSibley–Ahlquist taxonomy
Perhaps the "high-water mark" of phenetics were the DNA-DNA hybridization studies by Charles G. Sibley, Jon E. Ahlquist and Burt L. Monroe Jr., from which resulted the 1990 Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for birds.
DNA–DNA hybridization is among a class of comparative techniques in molecular biology that produce distance data (versus character data) and that can be analyzed to produce phylogenetic reconstructions only using phenetic tree-building algorithms.

Morphology (biology)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
In biology, phenetics (phainein - to appear), also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation.

David Hull

David L. HullHull
The history of pheneticism and cladism as rival taxonomic systems is analysed in David Hull's 1988 book Science as a Process.
Hull also proposed an elaborate discussion of science as an evolutionary process in his 1988 book, which also offered a historical account of the "taxonomy wars" of the 1960s and 1970s between three competing schools of taxonomy: phenetics, evolutionary systematics, and cladistics.

Taxon

taxagrouppolytypic
While a major goal of taxonomy remains describing the 'tree of life' – the evolutionary path connecting all species – in fieldwork one needs to be able to separate one taxon from another.
In addition, the class rank is quite often not an evolutionary but a phenetic or paraphyletic group and as opposed to those ranks governed by the ICZN (family-level, genus-level and species-level taxa), can usually not be made monophyletic by exchanging the taxa contained therein.

Peter Sneath

Peter H. A. SneathPeter Henry Andrews Sneath
Many people contributed to the development of phenetics, but the most influential were Peter Sneath and Robert R. Sokal.

Robert R. Sokal

Robert SokalSokalSokal, Robert R.
Many people contributed to the development of phenetics, but the most influential were Peter Sneath and Robert R. Sokal.

Neighbor joining

neighbor-joiningminimum evolutionneighbor joining (NJ)
However, certain phenetic methods, such as neighbor-joining, have found their way into phylogenetics, as a reasonable approximation of phylogeny when more advanced methods (such as Bayesian inference) are too computationally expensive.

Bayesian inference

BayesianBayesian analysisBayesian method
However, certain phenetic methods, such as neighbor-joining, have found their way into phylogenetics, as a reasonable approximation of phylogeny when more advanced methods (such as Bayesian inference) are too computationally expensive.

Cluster analysis

clusteringdata clusteringcluster
Phenetic techniques include various forms of clustering and ordination.

Ordination (statistics)

ordinationGradient analysisordination techniques
Phenetic techniques include various forms of clustering and ordination.

Michel Adanson

Adans.AdansonAdans
The method can be traced back to 1763 and Michel Adanson (in his Familles des plantes) because of two shared basic principles — overall similarity and equal weighting — and modern pheneticists are sometimes called neo-Adansonians.

Phylogenetic tree

phylogenyphylogeneticevolutionary tree
In biology, phenetics (phainein - to appear), also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation. Phenetic analyses are unrooted, that is, they do not distinguish between plesiomorphies, traits that are inherited from an ancestor, and apomorphies, traits that evolved anew in one or several lineages.

Plesiomorphy and symplesiomorphy

plesiomorphicplesiomorphsymplesiomorphy
Phenetic analyses are unrooted, that is, they do not distinguish between plesiomorphies, traits that are inherited from an ancestor, and apomorphies, traits that evolved anew in one or several lineages.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Phenetic analyses are unrooted, that is, they do not distinguish between plesiomorphies, traits that are inherited from an ancestor, and apomorphies, traits that evolved anew in one or several lineages.

Basal (phylogenetics)

basalbasalmostprimitive
A common problem with phenetic analysis is that basal evolutionary grades, which retain many plesiomorphies compared to more advanced lineages, appear to be monophyletic.

Evolutionary grade

gradegradesgrade taxon
A common problem with phenetic analysis is that basal evolutionary grades, which retain many plesiomorphies compared to more advanced lineages, appear to be monophyletic.

Monophyly

monophyleticmonophyletic groupnon-monophyletic
A common problem with phenetic analysis is that basal evolutionary grades, which retain many plesiomorphies compared to more advanced lineages, appear to be monophyletic.

Convergent evolution

convergentconvergenceanalogous
Phenetic analyses are also liable to be misled by convergent evolution and adaptive radiation.

Adaptive radiation

radiationradiateddiversified
Phenetic analyses are also liable to be misled by convergent evolution and adaptive radiation.

Corvida

corvid
These can be divided into two groups – Corvida, which retains ancient characters in phenotype and genotype, and Passerida, which has more modern traits.