Phenotype

phenotypicphenotypesphenotypicallyphenotypicalphenotypingphenotypic variationbehavioral phenotypesymptomsphenotypic traitsfunction
In genetics, the phenotype of an organism is the composite of the organism's observable characteristics or traits.wikipedia
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Polymorphism (biology)

polymorphismpolymorphicmorph
When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic.
In biology and zoology, polymorphism is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

Genotype

genotypesgenotypicgenotypically
An organism's phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism's genetic code, or its genotype, and the influence of environmental factors.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of any individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
An organism's phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism's genetic code, or its genotype, and the influence of environmental factors.
In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait.

Richard Dawkins

DawkinsDawkins, RichardDawkins, R.
Richard Dawkins in 1978 and then again in his 1982 book The Extended Phenotype suggested that one can regard bird nests and other built structures such as caddis-fly larvae cases and beaver dams as "extended phenotypes".
With his book The Extended Phenotype (1982), he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism's body, but can stretch far into the environment.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
In genetics, the phenotype of an organism is the composite of the organism's observable characteristics or traits.
The set of alleles for a given organism is called its genotype, while the observable traits of the organism are called its phenotype.

The Extended Phenotype

extended phenotype The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Geneextended phenotype hypothesis
Richard Dawkins in 1978 and then again in his 1982 book The Extended Phenotype suggested that one can regard bird nests and other built structures such as caddis-fly larvae cases and beaver dams as "extended phenotypes".
The main idea is that phenotype should not be limited to biological processes such as protein biosynthesis or tissue growth, but extended to include all effects that a gene has on its environment, inside or outside the body of the individual organism.

Wilhelm Johannsen

Johannsen, Wilhelm LudwigW. JohannsenW. L. Johannsen
Wilhelm Johannsen proposed the genotype-phenotype distinction in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces.
He is best known for coining the terms gene, phenotype and genotype, and for his 1903 "pure line" experiments in genetics.

Genotype–phenotype distinction

genotype-phenotype distinctiongenotype-phenotypegenotype-phenotype map
Wilhelm Johannsen proposed the genotype-phenotype distinction in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces.
"Phenotype" is an organism's actual observed properties, such as morphology, development, or behavior.

Heredity

hereditaryinheritedinheritance
Wilhelm Johannsen proposed the genotype-phenotype distinction in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces.
The complete set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype.

Labrador Retriever coat colour genetics

Labrador Retriever coloring
A well-documented example of polymorphism is Labrador Retriever coloring; while the coat color depends on many genes, it is clearly seen in the environment as yellow, black, and brown.
Each of the mutations appears to eliminate or significantly reduce enzymatic activity, and the colouration phenotypes (the visible traits) produced by the three mutations are indistinguishable.

Wild type

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The term "phenotype" has sometimes been incorrectly used as a shorthand for phenotypic difference from wild type, bringing the statement that a mutation has no phenotype.
Wild type (WT) refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Phenotypic variation (due to underlying heritable genetic variation) is a fundamental prerequisite for evolution by natural selection.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Phenotypic variation (due to underlying heritable genetic variation) is a fundamental prerequisite for evolution by natural selection.
This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: (1) traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology, physiology and behaviour (phenotypic variation), (2) different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction (differential fitness) and (3) traits can be passed from generation to generation (heritability of fitness).

Ecophenotypic variation

ecophenotype
Genotypes often have much flexibility in the modification and expression of phenotypes; in many organisms these phenotypes are very different under varying environmental conditions (see ecophenotypic variation).
Ecophenotypic variation ("ecophenotype") refers to phenotypical variation as a function of life station.

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
The genotype-phenotype distinction should not be confused with Francis Crick's central dogma of molecular biology, a statement about the directionality of molecular sequential information flowing from DNA to protein, and not the reverse.
In the 1944 Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment, Oswald Avery and his collaborators showed that a heritable phenotypic difference could be caused in bacteria by providing them with a particular DNA molecule.

Genetic diversity

variationgenetically diversegenetic variation
Phenotypic variation (due to underlying heritable genetic variation) is a fundamental prerequisite for evolution by natural selection.
Genotypic and phenotypic diversity have been found in all species at the protein, DNA, and organismal levels; in nature, this diversity is nonrandom, heavily structured, and correlated with environmental variation and stress.

Morphology (biology)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
The term covers the organism's morphology or physical form and structure, its developmental processes, its biochemical and physiological properties, its behavior, and the products of behavior.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The genotype-phenotype distinction should not be confused with Francis Crick's central dogma of molecular biology, a statement about the directionality of molecular sequential information flowing from DNA to protein, and not the reverse.
A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains genetic information and can influence the phenotype of an organism.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
For instance, an organism such as a beaver modifies its environment by building a beaver dam; this can be considered an expression of its genes, just as its incisor teeth are—which it uses to modify its environment.
These alleles encode slightly different versions of a protein, which cause different phenotypical traits.

Phenome

traits
Although a phenotype is the ensemble of observable characteristics displayed by an organism, the word phenome is sometimes used to refer to a collection of traits, while the simultaneous study of such a collection is referred to as phenomics.
A phenome is the set of all phenotypes expressed by a cell, tissue, organ, organism, or species.

Phenomics

high-throughput phenotyping
Although a phenotype is the ensemble of observable characteristics displayed by an organism, the word phenome is sometimes used to refer to a collection of traits, while the simultaneous study of such a collection is referred to as phenomics.
Phenomics is the systematic study of phenotypes.

Endophenotype

endophenotypiccognitive endophenotypeEndophenotypic Factors
Endophenotype is a genetic epidemiology term which is used to separate behavioral symptoms into more stable phenotypes with a clear genetic connection.

Ecotype

ecotypesagro-ecotypesecospecies
Typically, though ecotypes exhibit phenotypic differences (such as in morphology or physiology) stemming from environmental heterogeneity, they are capable of interbreeding with other geographically adjacent ecotypes without loss of fertility or vigor.

Molecular phenotyping

Integrated with quantified changes of phenotype induced by the perturbation, molecular phenotyping can identify pathways that contribute to the phenotypic changes.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
In genetics, the phenotype of an organism is the composite of the organism's observable characteristics or traits.