Phenotypic trait

traittraitscharacterscharactercharacteristicsphenotypicbiological traitcharacter statephysical traitsTrait (biological)
This article refers to traits in biology.wikipedia
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Heredity

hereditaryinheritedinheritance
A phenotypic trait, simply trait, or character state is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

Epigenetics

epigeneticepigeneticallyepigenetic regulation
The phenotype is dependent on the genetic make-up of the organism, and also influenced by the environmental conditions to which the organism is subjected across its ontogenetic development, including various epigenetic processes.
Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of normal development.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The inheritable unit that may influence a trait is called a gene.
The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic trait.

Gregor Mendel

MendelGregor Johann MendelMendelian
Gregor Mendel pioneered modern genetics.
Though farmers had known for millennia that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.

Locus (genetics)

locuslociq arm
An important reference point along a chromosome is the centromere; the distance from a gene to the centromere is referred to as the gene's locus or map location. The nucleus of a diploid cell contains two of each chromosome, with homologous (mostly identical) pairs of chromosomes having the same genes at the same loci.
Gene mapping is the process of determining the specific locus or loci responsible for producing a particular phenotype or biological trait.

Homology (biology)

homologoushomologyhomolog
The nucleus of a diploid cell contains two of each chromosome, with homologous (mostly identical) pairs of chromosomes having the same genes at the same loci.
As implied in this definition, many cladists consider secondary homology to be synonymous with synapomorphy, a shared derived character or trait state that distinguishes a clade from other organisms.

Allele

allelesallelicmultiple alleles
Different phenotypic traits are caused by different forms of genes, or alleles, which arise by mutation in a single individual and are passed on to successive generations.
Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation.

Phene

A phene is an individual genetically determined characteristic or trait which can be possessed by an organism, such as eye colour, height, behavior, tooth shape or any other observable characteristic.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
A gene is a portion of a chromosome, which is a very long and compacted string of DNA and proteins.

Allometric engineering

More specifically, the process of experimentally breaking the tight covariance evident among component traits of a complex phenotype by altering the variance of one trait relative to another.

Phenotype

phenotypicphenotypesphenotypically
A phenotypic trait, simply trait, or character state is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
A phenotypic trait, simply trait, or character state is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

Eye color

BrownBlueGreen
For example, eye color is a character of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits.

Genotype

genotypesgenotypicgenotypically
Underlying genes, which make up the genotype, determine the hair color, but the hair color observed is the phenotype.

Ontogeny

ontogeneticontogenesisdevelopment
The phenotype is dependent on the genetic make-up of the organism, and also influenced by the environmental conditions to which the organism is subjected across its ontogenetic development, including various epigenetic processes.

Biological organisation

biological organizationhierarchy of lifeOrganization
Regardless of the degree of influence of genotype versus environment, the phenotype encompasses all of the characteristics of an organism, including traits at multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from behavior and evolutionary history of life traits (e.g., litter size), through morphology (e.g., body height and composition), physiology (e.g., blood pressure), cellular characteristics (e.g., membrane lipid composition, mitochondrial densities), components of biochemical pathways, and even messenger RNA.

Behavior

behaviourbehavioralbehaviors
Regardless of the degree of influence of genotype versus environment, the phenotype encompasses all of the characteristics of an organism, including traits at multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from behavior and evolutionary history of life traits (e.g., litter size), through morphology (e.g., body height and composition), physiology (e.g., blood pressure), cellular characteristics (e.g., membrane lipid composition, mitochondrial densities), components of biochemical pathways, and even messenger RNA.

Evolutionary history of life

Prehistoric lifeevolutionary historyhistory of life
Regardless of the degree of influence of genotype versus environment, the phenotype encompasses all of the characteristics of an organism, including traits at multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from behavior and evolutionary history of life traits (e.g., litter size), through morphology (e.g., body height and composition), physiology (e.g., blood pressure), cellular characteristics (e.g., membrane lipid composition, mitochondrial densities), components of biochemical pathways, and even messenger RNA.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
Regardless of the degree of influence of genotype versus environment, the phenotype encompasses all of the characteristics of an organism, including traits at multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from behavior and evolutionary history of life traits (e.g., litter size), through morphology (e.g., body height and composition), physiology (e.g., blood pressure), cellular characteristics (e.g., membrane lipid composition, mitochondrial densities), components of biochemical pathways, and even messenger RNA.

Messenger RNA

mRNAmRNAstranscripts
Regardless of the degree of influence of genotype versus environment, the phenotype encompasses all of the characteristics of an organism, including traits at multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from behavior and evolutionary history of life traits (e.g., litter size), through morphology (e.g., body height and composition), physiology (e.g., blood pressure), cellular characteristics (e.g., membrane lipid composition, mitochondrial densities), components of biochemical pathways, and even messenger RNA.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
A gene is a portion of a chromosome, which is a very long and compacted string of DNA and proteins.

Histone

histoneshistone modificationhistone modifications
A gene is a portion of a chromosome, which is a very long and compacted string of DNA and proteins.

Centromere

acrocentricsubmetacentriccentromeric
An important reference point along a chromosome is the centromere; the distance from a gene to the centromere is referred to as the gene's locus or map location.

Mutation

mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
Different phenotypic traits are caused by different forms of genes, or alleles, which arise by mutation in a single individual and are passed on to successive generations.

Genetic code

codoncodonsencoded
A gene is only a DNA code sequence; the slightly different variations of that sequence are called alleles.