Philip II of Spain

Philip IIKing Philip IIPhilipKing Philip II of SpainPhilip I of PortugalFelipe IIKing PhilipPhillip IIPhilip of SpainPhillip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554 to 1558).wikipedia
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Spanish Golden Age

Siglo de OroGolden AgeGolden Century
This is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age.
Politically, El Siglo de Oro lasted from the accession to the throne of Philip II of Spain in 1556 to the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659.

Spanish Empire

SpanishSpainSpanish colonies
The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Spanish kingdoms Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in the Spanish kingdoms; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines.
In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal (as Philip I), he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv[ed] its own laws, institutions, and monetary system, and united only in sharing a common sovereign."

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Spanish kingdoms Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in the Spanish kingdoms; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines.
In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain.

Act of Abjuration

Plakkaat van Verlatinghe1581 declarationabjured
This policy was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581.
The Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, Acta de Abjuración, literally 'placard of abjuration') is the declaration of independence by many of the provinces of the Netherlands from the allegiance to Philip II of Spain, during the Dutch Revolt.

Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal

Joanna of AustriaJoan of SpainJoanna
Philip was also close to his two sisters, María and Juana, and to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga.
She served as regent of Spain to her brother Philip II of Spain during his trip to England to marry Mary I in 1554-1556, and from 1556 to 1559.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VEmperor Charles VCharles I of Spain
The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Spanish kingdoms Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in the Spanish kingdoms; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. The son of Charles I and V, King of the Spanish kingdoms and Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Castilian capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, which was owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel (the first Marqués de Távara).
After thirty-five years of incessant warfare and facing the prospect of an alliance between all of his enemies, Charles V conceded the Peace of Augsburg and abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications in 1556 that divided his hereditary and imperial domains between the Spanish Habsburgs headed by his son Philip II of Spain and the Austrian Habsburgs headed by his brother Ferdinand, who was Archduke of Austria in Charles' name since 1521 and the designated successor as emperor since 1531.

Catholic League (French)

Catholic LeagueLeagueCatholic League of France
On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists.
Pope Sixtus V, Philip II of Spain, and the Jesuits were all supporters of this Catholic party.

Antonio Pérez (statesman)

Antonio PérezAntonio Perez1591 situation
In November 1592, the Parliament (Cortes) of Aragón revolted against another breach of the realm-specific laws, so the Attorney General (Justicia) of the kingdom, Juan de Lanuza, was executed on Philip II's orders, with his secretary Antonio Perez taking exile in France.
Antonio Pérez (1534–1611) was a Spanish statesman, secretary of king Philip II of Spain.

Dutch Republic

United ProvincesDutchNetherlands
This policy was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581.
Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain.

Treaty of Joinville

Joinville
On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists.

Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress

Maria of SpainMaria of AustriaEmpress Maria
Philip was also close to his two sisters, María and Juana, and to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga.
She grew up mostly between Toledo and Valladolid with her siblings, Philip and Joanna.

Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga

Luis de RequesensLuis de Zúñiga y RequesensRequesens
Philip was also close to his two sisters, María and Juana, and to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga.
He, and his brother Juan de Zúñiga y Requesens (Viceroy of Naples in 1579–1582), were the sons of Juan de Zúñiga, a tutor of king Philip II, and Estefanía de Requesens.

Elisabeth of Valois

Elizabeth of ValoisElisabethIsabel de Valois
Anguissola also became a lady-in-waiting and court painter for the queen, Elizabeth de Valois.
Elisabeth of Valois (Isabel de Valois; Élisabeth de France) (2 April 1545 – 3 October 1568) was a Spanish queen consort as the third spouse of Philip II of Spain.

Neapolitan sums

This debt caused Phillip II to default on loans in 1557, 1560, 1575, and 1596 (including debt to Poland, known as Neapolitan sums).
The Neapolitan sums (Sumy neapolitańskie) refers to a loan made in 1557 by Bona Sforza, dowager Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania, to Philip II of Spain.

Sofonisba Anguissola

Anguissola, SofonisbaSofonisba (or Sophonisba) AnguissolaSofonisba Anguisciola
One of the notable artists from Phillip II's court was Sofonisba Anguissola, who gained fame for her talent and unusual role as a woman artist.
She later became an official court painter to the king, Philip II, and adapted her style to the more formal requirements of official portraits for the Spanish court.

Philip III of Spain

Philip IIIPhilip II of PortugalPhilip II
Except for a brief period under Philip III of Spain, Madrid has remained the capital of Spain.
A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain.

Ruy Gómez de Silva

Rui Gomes da Silvaactual duke by that nameDon Ruy Gomez II de Silva y Meneses
Philip was also close to his two sisters, María and Juana, and to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga.
Dom Rui Gomes da Silva (in Spanish, Ruy Gómez de Silva), 1st Prince of Eboli (27 October 1516 in Chamusca – 29 July 1573 in Madrid), was a Portuguese noble and one of King Philip II of Spain's main advisers.

List of Spanish regents

RegentRegent of SpainQueen Regent of Spain
The king-emperor's interactions with his son during his stay in Castile convinced him of Philip's precocity in statesmanship, so he determined to leave in his hands the regency of the Spanish kingdoms in 1543.

Morisco

MoriscosMoriscaMourisco
Philip II also grappled with the problem of the large Morisco population in the Spanish kingdoms, who were sometimes forcibly converted to Christianity by his predecessors.
This culminated in Philip II's Pragmatica of 1 January 1567 which ordered the Moriscos to abandon their customs, clothing and language.

John of Austria

Don John of AustriaDon Juan of AustriaDon Juan de Austria
Earlier, however, after several setbacks in his reign and especially that of his father, Philip did achieve a decisive victory against the Turks at the Lepanto in 1571, with the allied fleet of the Holy League, which he had put under the command of his illegitimate brother, John of Austria.
He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, King Philip II of Spain, and is best known for his role as the admiral of the Holy Alliance fleet at the Battle of Lepanto.

Spanish Netherlands

NetherlandsSpanishLow Countries
He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.
The netherlands were left to of his son Philip II of Spain, while his brother Archduke Ferdinand I succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.

Henry I, Duke of Guise

Duke of GuiseHenry of GuiseHenry, Duke of Guise
On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League; consequently Philip supplied a considerable annual grant to the League over the following decade to maintain the civil war in France, with the hope of destroying the French Calvinists.
However, at the death in 1584 of Francis, Duke of Anjou, the king's brother (which left Henry of Navarre, the Protestant champion, as heir-male), Guise concluded the Treaty of Joinville with Philip II of Spain.

Valladolid

Valladolid, SpaincityFair of Valladolid
The son of Charles I and V, King of the Spanish kingdoms and Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Castilian capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, which was owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel (the first Marqués de Távara).

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign, Philip II decided to return to Castile.
In light of the defeat at Gembloux, the southern states of the Seventeen Provinces (today in northern France and Belgium) distanced themselves from the rebels in the north with the 1579 Union of Arras, which expressed their loyalty to Philip II of Spain.

El Escorial

EscorialRoyal Site of San Lorenzo de El EscorialMonastery of El Escorial
Indeed, when his health began failing, he worked from his quarters at the Palace-Monastery-Pantheon of El Escorial that he had built in 1584, a palace built as a monument to Spain's role as a center of the Christian world.
Philip II of Spain, reacting to the changes of the 16th century, dedicated much of his lengthy reign (1556–1598) and much of his seemingly inexhaustible supply of New World gold to stemming the tide of Protestantism.