Philippine–American War

Philippine-American WarPhilippine InsurrectionFilipino-American WarPhilippinesPhilippine American WarPhilippine WarPhilippine War of IndependenceFilipino Warinsurrectionannexation of the Philippines
The Philippine–American War, also referred to as the FilipinoAmerican War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection or the Tagalog Insurgency (Filipino: Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano; Spanish: Guerra Filipino-Estadounidense), was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.wikipedia
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Spanish–American War

Spanish-American Warwar with SpainSpanish American War
The conflict arose when the First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish–American War.
That led to U.S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately in the Philippine–American War.

Battle of Manila (1899)

Battle of Manila1899 Battle of ManilaBattle of Manila of 1899
Fighting erupted between forces of the United States and those of the Philippine Republic on February 4, 1899, in what became known as the 1899 Battle of Manila.
The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila; Batalla de Manila), the first and largest battle of the Philippine–American War, was fought on February 4–5, 1899, between 19,000 American soldiers and 15,000 Filipino armed militiamen.

Moro Rebellion

MoroAmericansMoro Uprising
Other groups, including the Moro and Pulahan peoples, continued hostilities in remote areas and islands, until their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15, 1913.
The Moro Rebellion (1899–1913) was an armed conflict between the Moro people and the United States military during the Philippine–American War.

Emilio Aguinaldo

AguinaldoGeneral Emilio AguinaldoGen. Emilio Aguinaldo
Among those leaders was General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member who assumed the presidency of the proclaimed Tagalog Republic, formed in 1902 after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo.
He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).

Philippine Revolution

revolutionPhilippine Revolution of 1896revolutionary
While Filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution, the U.S. government regarded it as an insurrection.
On February 4, 1899, in the Battle of Manila, fighting broke out between the Filipino and American forces, beginning the Philippine–American War.

Macario Sakay

Macario SacayMacario Sakay y de LeónSakay
Among those leaders was General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member who assumed the presidency of the proclaimed Tagalog Republic, formed in 1902 after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo.
Macario Sakay y de León (March 1, 1878 – September 13, 1907) was a Filipino general who took part in the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and in the Philippine-American War.

Battle of Bud Bagsak

1913 Bud Bagsak battleMount Bagsak
Other groups, including the Moro and Pulahan peoples, continued hostilities in remote areas and islands, until their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15, 1913.
The Battle of Bud Bagsak was a battle during the Moro Rebellion phase of the Philippine–American War fought between June 11 and June 15, 1913.

First Philippine Republic

Philippine RepublicMalolos RepublicPhilippines
The Philippine–American War, also referred to as the FilipinoAmerican War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection or the Tagalog Insurgency (Filipino: Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano; Spanish: Guerra Filipino-Estadounidense), was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.
The Philippine–American War began in February 1899, which the Philippine Republic lost.

Philippine Organic Act (1902)

Philippine Organic ActPhilippine Organic Act of 1902Philippine Organic Act of July 1902
In 1902, the United States Congress passed the Philippine Organic Act, which provided for the creation of the Philippine Assembly, with members to be elected by Filipino males (women did not have the vote until after the 1937 suffrage plebiscite).
The approval of the act coincided with the official end of the Philippine–American War.

Katipunan

KatipunerosKatipuneroAng Kalayaan
However, some Philippine groups—led by veterans of the Katipunan, a Philippine revolutionary society—continued to battle the American forces for several more years.
Since the priest was a friend of Santiago's sister, he and his half-brother Restituto Javier were suspected of betrayal, but the two would remain loyal to the Katipunan and Santiago would even join the Philippine revolutionary forces in the Philippine–American War.

Constitution of the Philippines

1987 ConstitutionConstitutionPhilippine Constitution
He later organized a congress in Malolos, Bulacan to draft a constitution.
The earliest constitution establishing a "Philippine Republic", the 1899 Malolos Constitution, was never fully implemented throughout the Philippines and did not establish a state that was internationally recognized, due in great part to the eruption of the Philippine–American War following its adoption.

President of the Philippines

PresidentPhilippine PresidentPresidents
Aguinaldo is officially considered the first President of the Philippines.
The Philippine–American War broke out between the United States and Aguinaldo's government.

Wesley Merritt

MerrittGeneral Wesley MerrittMaj. Gen. Wesley Merritt
The secret agreement made by Commodore Dewey and Brigadier General Wesley Merritt with newly arrived Spanish Governor-General Fermín Jáudenes and with his predecessor Basilio Augustín was for the Spanish forces to surrender only to the Americans, not to the Filipino revolutionaries.
Wesley Merritt (June 16, 1834 – December 3, 1910) was an American major general who served in the cavalry of the United States Army during the American Civil War, American Indian Wars, Spanish–American War, and the Philippine–American War.

Thomas M. Anderson

Thomas McArthur Anderson
On the eve of the battle, Brigadier General Thomas M. Anderson telegraphed Aguinaldo, "Do not let your troops enter Manila without the permission of the American commander. On this side of the Pasig River you will be under fire".
Thomas McArthur Anderson (January 21, 1836 – May 8, 1917) was a career officer in the United States Army who served as a general in the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War.

Philippine Revolutionary Army

Filipino RevolutionariesPhilippine Republican ArmyFilipino forces
Less than three months after Aguinaldo's return, the Philippine Revolutionary Army had conquered nearly all of the Philippines.
When the Philippine–American War erupted on February 4, 1899, the Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector.

Philippine Assembly

First Philippine Assemblylower houseAssemblyman
In 1902, the United States Congress passed the Philippine Organic Act, which provided for the creation of the Philippine Assembly, with members to be elected by Filipino males (women did not have the vote until after the 1937 suffrage plebiscite).
The United States of America gained control of the Philippines following the 1898 Spanish–American War and the subsequent Philippine–American War.

Gregorio del Pilar

Gen. Gregorio del Pilar '''Gen. Gregorio del Pilar''' Gregorio H. del Pilar
Beginning on September 14, 1899, Aguinaldo accepted the advice of General Gregorio del Pilar and authorized the use of guerrilla warfare tactics in subsequent military operations in Bulacan.
Gregorio Hilario del Pilar y Sempio (November 14, 1875 – December 2, 1899) was a Filipino general of the Philippine Revolutionary Army during the Philippine–American War.

Asiatic Squadron

Asiatic StationAsiaticAsiatic Fleet
According to Aguinaldo, Pratt had communicated with Commodore George Dewey (commander of the Asiatic Squadron of the United States Navy) by telegram, and passed assurances from Dewey to Aguinaldo that the United States would recognize the independence of the Philippines under the protection of the United States Navy.
The Asiatic Squadron participated in the Philippine–American War from 1899 until its disbandment in 1902.

Battle of Paye

Battle of San MateobattleLabanan sa San Mateo
The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac.
The Battle of Paye, also known as the Battle of San Mateo, was a battle during the Philippine–American War between the United States and the Philippines.

Balangiga massacre

BalangigaBattle of BalangigaFilipino guerrillas killed 48 members
The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac.
The Balangiga massacre, also called the Balangiga incident or Balangiga conflict, took place in Balangiga in 1901 during the Philippine–American War.

Battle of Pulang Lupa

Ang Labanan sa Pulang LupaBattle of Pulang Lupa – Torrijos, MarinduquePulang Lupa
The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac.
The Battle of Pulang Lupa (, Batalla de Tierra Roja) was an engagement fought on September 13, 1900, during the Philippine–American War, between the forces of Colonel Maximo Abad and Devereux Shields, in which Abad's men defeated the American force.

Battle of Mabitac

MabitacMabitac was the site of a battle
The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac.
The Battle of Mabitac (, Batalla de Mabitac) was an engagement in the Philippine–American War, when on September 17, 1900, Filipinos under General Juan Cailles defeated an American force commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham, Jr.

Battle of Makahambus Hill

Battle of MakahambusLabanan sa Burol ng MakahambusMakahambus
The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac.
The Battle of Makahambus Hill was one of the victories won by the Filipinos over the Americans during the Philippine–American War.

Siege of Catubig

Battle of CatubigCatubigfour-day siege
The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac.
The Siege of Catubig (Filipino: Pagkubkob sa Catubig) was a long and bloody engagement fought during the Philippine–American War, in which Filipino guerrillas launched a surprise attack against a detachment of U.S. infantry, and then forced them to abandon the town after a four-day siege.

Frederick Funston

General FunstonGeneral Frederick FunstonCapture of Aguinaldo
On March 23, 1901, General Frederick Funston and his troops captured Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela, with the help of some Filipinos (called the Macabebe Scouts after their home locale) who had joined the Americans' side.
Frederick Funston (November 9, 1865 – February 19, 1917) also known as Fighting Fred Funston, was a general in the United States Army, best known for his roles in the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War.