A report on Philippines

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

- Philippines

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Plate depicting the "nilad" plant (Scyphiphora hydrophylacea), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"

Manila

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Plate depicting the "nilad" plant (Scyphiphora hydrophylacea), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the oldest historical record in the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to Tondo and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).
1734 map of the Walled City of Manila. The city was planned according to the Laws of the Indies.
Ayuntamiento de Manila served as the City Hall during the Spanish Colonial Period.
Spanish cannons on a fortress wall in Manila, circa pre-1900
Tutuban Main Station, which was built in 1887, is the main terminal of the Ferrocaril de Manila-Dagupan (now known as the Philippine National Railways). At the present moment, it serves as a shopping center and a public transit hub.
The 1905 Burnham Plan of Manila recommended improving the city's transit systems by creating diagonal arteries radiating from the new central civic district into areas at the outskirts of the city.
The tranvía running along Escolta Street during the American period.
Aerial view of Manila, 1936
USS Essex TBF-1 Avenger dropping a bomb over Pasig River in Manila targeting the dockyard, 14 November 1944
The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila in 1945
View of the Rizal Monument in Rizal Park.
Skyline of Manila as seen from Harbour Square.
The Manila Bay sunset
The Manila Bay Beach during the International Coastal Cleanup Day in September 2020
Manila is divided into six congressional districts.
District map of Manila showing its sixteen districts.
Temperature and rainfall
Air pollution in Quiapo-Binondo area.
Street map of Manila city proper indicating points of interest
Ermita-Malate skyline in Manila
The façade of the NCCA Metropolitan Theater, designed by Filipino architect Juan M. Arellano
Jones Bridge was redeveloped in 2019 to "restore" it to its near-original design using Beaux-Arts architecture.
The Luneta Hotel, an example of French Renaissance architecture with Filipino stylized beaux art
People flocking the street market at Plaza Miranda.
A Toyota Vios of the Manila Police District
Aerial view of the Port of Manila, the chief port of the Philippines.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines
Skyline of Binondo, the central business district of the city of Manila, as seen from Fort Santiago
Landbank Plaza, the headquarters of the Land Bank of the Philippines.
The historic Plaza Moriones in Fort Santiago, Intramuros.
Divisoria is a popular flea market for locals and tourists.
The National Museum of Fine Arts.
The National Museum of Natural History at Agrifina Circle, Rizal Park.
Aerial view of the city-owned Rizal Memorial Sports Complex, considered as the national sports complex of the Philippines.
Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church in Intramuros
The Intramuros Golf Club
Catholic devotees during the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon)
Manila City Hall, the seat of city government
Isko Moreno, the city mayor
Especially since martial law era, Manila, being home of nationally-significant government offices and being the national capital, has been a venue for major protests.
The Smokey Mountain Housing Project was built on a former landfill. Continuous development of housing buildings continues up to the present day.
Jeepneys are one of the most popular modes of transportation in Manila
Pureza station of LRT Line 2 in Santa Mesa
Blumentritt Station of the LRT Line 1
De La Salle University is a Lasallian educational institution established in 1911.
The campus of the University of the City of Manila and Baluarte de San Diego in Intramuros.
Manila Cathedral is the seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
The Minor Basilica of San Sebastián is the only all-steel church in Asia.<ref name="whl">{{Cite web |title=World Heritage: San Sebastian Church |url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/518/ |access-date=April 20, 2008 |website=Tentative List for the World Heritage List |publisher=UNESCO}}</ref>
San Agustín Church in Intramuros, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Binondo Church serves the Roman Catholic Chinese community
Quiapo Church, home of the iconic Black Nazarene whose Traslacion feast is celebrated every January 9
Grand Marian Procession in Intramuros
alt=|Sto. Niño de Pandacan Church before the 2020 fire

Manila, known officially as the City of Manila , is the capital of the Philippines, and its second-most populous city.

Bangkang pinawa, an ancient Philippine mortar and pestle.

Luzon

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Bangkang pinawa, an ancient Philippine mortar and pestle.
Detail of an illustration from Jean Mallat's Les Philippines (1846), showing "a Tagalog couple pounding rice." The mortar depicted is known as a "lusong", which was also the Old Tagalog name of the Pasig River delta.
U.S. Navy ships under attack while entering Lingayen Gulf, January 1945
The Central Luzon plain with Mount Arayat in the background
Lake Pinatubo in Zambales
A view of Quezon City in September 2017, the largest city in Luzon island
An Ifugao warrior with some of his trophies, Cordillera Mountains, circa 1912
Dominant languages per administrative region.
Saint Augustine Catholic Church in Paoay
EDSA, a major thoroughfare in Metro Manila
North coast of Luzon along the Cagayan-Ilocos Norte boundary
Summit of Mount Pulag, Luzon's highest mountain
West coast of Luzon at San Juan overlooking the South China Sea
The Cagayan Valley at Cabagan with the Sierra Madre mountains in the background
Canoes along upstream Cagayan River at Quirino province

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.

A 1926 photograph of Bagobo (Manobo) warriors

Mindanao

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A 1926 photograph of Bagobo (Manobo) warriors
An old Spanish map of Mindanao island.
Approximate historical extent of the Muslim sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao and Lanao in the 19th century
Christian Filipinos, who served under the Spanish Army, searching for Moro rebels during the Spanish–Moro conflict, c. 1887. The insurgency in Mindanao can be traced to the early 16th century.
Two Spanish missionaries baptizing a Moro convert to Roman Catholicism, circa 1890.
Lanao sultans making an open letter to Duterte urging for the quick resolution of the Marawi crisis
Cagayan de Oro skyline in 2018
Mountains in the province of Bukidnon
Mt. Apo, the highest peak in the Philippines
Mindanao coast
Rio Grande de Mindanao
"I-indak sa kadalanan" or the Street dancing competition, part of Kadayawan Festival celebration in Davao City.
Davao City's Chinatown

Mindanao is the second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the island is part of an island group of the same name that also includes its adjacent islands, notably the Sulu Archipelago.

Quezon City

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Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd president of the Philippines and the visionary behind the creation of Quezon City is the namesake of the city
The transfer of the University of the Philippines from Manila to Diliman was a precedent for the creation of Quezon City
Quezon Memorial Circle is the focal point of the newly-established capital city where the proposed Capitol Building of the Philippines is supposed to rise.
Territories ceded by Caloocan to form Quezon City. Existing territorial boundaries. Detached by Commonwealth Act 502 (1939).  Novaliches area. Detached by Republic Act 392 (1949).
The Bantayog ng mga Bayani was dedicated in honor of the all the people that struggled during the Marcos regime.
EDSA Shrine
Elevation map of Quezon City. The drop in elevation along the eastern border of the city follows the length of the West Valley Fault.
2013 Skyline of North EDSA, featuring SM City North EDSA.
Tandang Sora National Shrine in Balintawak is dedicated to Melchora Aquino, who was a prominent figure in the Philippine Revolution.
Historic Socorro Water Towers in Socorro, Cubao which has been converted as the Socorro Barangay Hall.
Balete Drive in New Manila is known in Filipino folklore as a haunted place, where a white lady purportedly appears.
The Philippine Heart Center, one of the country's designer hospitals, was designed in brutalist style.
Immaculate Conception Cathedral in Cubao.
Central Temple of the Iglesia ni Cristo.
Slum in Damayang Lagi
Araneta City in Cubao
Eastwood City in Bagumbayan is the home to country's first and largest cyberpark.
The GMA Network Center in Diliman is the headquarters of GMA Network.
Quezon City Hall, the seat of city government
The DILG-NAPOLCOM Center is the headquarters of the Department of the Interior and Local Government.
BSP Security Plant Complex along East Avenue in NGC I.
Main office of the Social Security System.
Araneta Coliseum
St. Luke's Medical Center – Quezon City (SLMC) is regarded as one of the best private hospitals in the country.
The National Science Complex (NSC) within the University of the Philippines Diliman.
Ateneo de Manila University, regarded as the best private university in the Philippines.
EDSA near Kamuning Station.
EDSA-Aurora Boulevard crossing, showing the viaducts of LRT-2 and MRT-3. An LRT-2 train is seen passing above.
La Mesa Ecopark in the La Mesa Watershed Reservation, which also contains the La Mesa Dam and Reservoir.
The Payatas dumpsite in 2007. It was permanently closed in 2017.
The Katipunan Tree inside the Metro Manila College campus in Novaliches

Quezon City, also known as the City of Quezon and Q.C. (read in Filipino as Kyusi), is the most populous city in the Philippines.

Metro Manila

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Nichols Field runway with Manila in the background, taken prior to 1941
Metropolitan Manila, or the National Capital Region, is divided morphologically into three major parts. These are the: Central Plateau, Coastal Lowland, and Marikina Valley
Drainage map of the Pasig-Marikina River system
Flooding brought by Typhoon Ketsana (Tropical Storm Ondoy) in 2009 caused 484 deaths in Metro Manila alone.
Commemoration of 119th Rizal Day at Rizal Park
Malacañan Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines.
The Batasang Pambansa Complex is the seat of the House of Representatives.
MMDA Headquarters (2012)
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Districts of Metro Manila
The Smokey Mountain Development and Reclamation Project for the former Smokey Mountain dumpsite and slum community is a prime example of in-city relocation housing for informal settler families in Tondo, City of Manila.
Ayala Avenue, looking westward, in the Makati Central Business District.
Bonifacio Global City and Makati skylines from Grand Hyatt Manila, the tallest building in the Philippines.
Aerial view of the SM Mall of Asia Complex (2016)
Gate of Fort Santiago at the historic walled area of Intramuros, City of Manila. (2013)
San Agustin Church, which was built in 1604 is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Okada Manila is one of Metro Manila's integrated casino resort and hotel complex.
"Spoliarium", displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines
A 2019 Southeast Asian Games basketball game held at the Mall of Asia Arena.
University of the Philippines Diliman is the flagship campus of the University of the Philippines since 1949.
The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in Asia.
De La Salle University (DLSU)
Camp Crame is the headquarters of the Philippine National Police
Camp Aguinaldo is the headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
A flyover on EDSA at its intersection with Quezon Avenue.
Portion of South Luzon Expressway at the southern tip of Metro Manila
The Santolan station of the Line 2.
System map of the Metro Manila railway system.
Water zones for Metro Manila and the surrounding areas. Maynilad Water Services operates in the red areas while Manila Water operates in the blue areas.
Makati CBD is the principal central business district of the Philippines.
The Metro Manila skyline from San Mateo, Rizal, looking at Makati CBD, Ortigas CBD, Eastwood City and Bonifacio Global City.
The Northern Metro Manila skyline from San Mateo, Rizal, looking at Manila, Araneta City, and Quezon City.
The Northern Roxas Boulevard Skyline.
The Makati, Bay City, and Entertainment City skylines from Manila Bay.

Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; ), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; ), is the seat of government and one of three defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines.

Austronesian peoples

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The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

Skulls representing Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's "five races" in De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa (1795). The Tahitian skull labelled "O-taheitae" represented what he called the "Malay race"
The New Physiognomy map (1889) printed by the Fowler & Wells Company depicting Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's five human races. The region inhabited by the "Malay race" is shown enclosed in dotted lines. Like in most 19th century sources, Islander Melanesians are excluded. Taiwan, which was annexed by the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century is also excluded.
Distribution of the Austronesian languages (Blust, 1999)
Paraw sailboats from Boracay, Philippines. Outrigger canoes and crab claw sails are hallmarks of the Austronesian maritime culture.
Coconuts in Rangiroa island in the Tuamotus, French Polynesia, a typical island landscape in Austronesia. Coconuts are native to tropical Asia, and were spread as canoe plants to the Pacific Islands and Madagascar by Austronesians.
Extent of contemporary Austronesia and possible further migrations and contact (Blench, 2009)
Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light rose pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of all the Austronesian peoples.
Samoan man carrying two containers over his shoulder
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
Representation of the coastal migration model, with the indication of the later development of mitochondrial haplogroups
Coastlines of Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia during the last glacial period
Aeta fishermen in an outrigger canoe in Luzon, Philippines (c. 1899)
Possible language family homelands and the spread of rice into Southeast Asia (ca. 5,500–2,500 BP). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue.
Yue statue of a tattooed Baiyue man in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum (c. 3rd century BCE)
Suggested early migration route of early Austronesians into and out of Taiwan based on ancient and modern mtDNA data. This hypothesis assumes the Sino-Austronesian grouping, a minority view among linguists. (Ko et al., 2014)
Proposed routes of Austroasiatic and Austronesian migrations into Indonesia (Simanjuntak, 2017)
Proposed genesis of Daic languages and their relation with Austronesians (Blench, 2018)
Early waves of migration to Taiwan proposed by Roger Blench (2014)
Colorized photograph of a Tsou warrior from Taiwan wearing traditional clothing (pre-World War II)
Map showing the migration of the Austronesians
Hōkūlea, a modern replica of a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe, is an example of a catamaran, another of the early sailing innovations of Austronesians
Proposed migration waves from Sundaland in the Late Pleistocene based on mtDNA data; and later "back-migrations" into Island Southeast Asia during the early to mid-Holocene expansion of rice-farming Austronesians from mainland southern China. The extent of the coastlines of Sundaland during the last ice age is presented in light shading; while modern coastlines after the rise of sea levels in the Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene is in dark shading. (Brandão et al., 2016)
Queen Liliuokalani, the last sovereign monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Aboriginal Taiwanese Architecture
Sama-Bajau villages are typically built directly on shallow water
The raised bale houses of the Ifugao people with capped house posts are believed to be derived from the designs of traditional granaries
Tongkonan houses of the Toraja people with the distinctive saddleback roofs reminiscent of boats
Bai meeting house of the Palauan people with colourfully decorated gables
Māori pataka storehouses
Cast of a Lapita red-slipped earthenware shard from the Santa Cruz Islands (c. 1000 BCE), showing dentate-stamped, circle-stamped, and cross-in-circle decorations. The latter two are shared elements from Neolithic red-slipped pottery from the Nagsabaran Site in the Philippines.
Māori hei matau jade pendant
Hand stencils in the "Tree of Life" cave painting in Gua Tewet, Kalimantan, Indonesia
Watu Molindo ("the entertainer stone"), one of the megaliths in Bada Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, usually found near megalithic stone vats known as kalamba.
Toraja megaliths memorializing the deceased in Sulawesi, Indonesia
Boats and human figures in a cave painting in the Niah National Park of Sarawak, Malaysia; an example of the Austronesian Painting Traditions (APT)
Petroglyphs in Vanuatu with the concentric circles and swirling designs characteristic of the Austronesian Engraving Style (AES)
Haligi pillars from the Latte period of Guam, these served as supports for raised buildings
The ruins of Nan Madol, a stone city built on artificial islets in Pohnpei
A rai stone, large stone discs used as currency in Yap
A marae sacred site in Raiatea, French Polynesia
Hawaiian petroglyph depicting a poi dog (īlio)
Carving of Rongo, the Māori deity (atua) of kūmara, from Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
A 1782 illustration of a heiau temple in Hawaii
Elder Tayal women from Taiwan with facial tattoos
Teeth filing on a Mentawai man in the Mentawai Islands, Dutch East Indies, c. 1938
Tablet B of rongorongo, an undeciphered system of glyphs from Rapa Nui
An example of the abundant petroglyphs in Orongo, Rapa Nui associated with the tangata manu cult of Makemake. Rongorongo does not appear in any of these petroglyphs.
The Talang Tuo inscription, a 7th-century Srivijaya stele featuring Old Malay written in a derivative of the Pallava script
Page from Doctrina Cristiana Española Y Tagala (1593) featuring the Baybayin script alongside the Latin alphabet
Wharenui meeting house of the Māori people
Besakana of the Merina people
Bahay kubo of the Filipinos. Also known as Payag in Visayan.
Bure of the Fijian people
Uma mbatangu of the Sumba people
Jabu of the Toba Batak people
Rumoh of the Acehnese people
Rumah gadang of the Minangkabau people
Torogan of the Maranao people
Kubing jaw harps, flutes, and a kagul slit drum from the Philippines
Karinding jaw harps of the Sundanese people, Indonesia
Sapeh, traditional lutes of the Orang Ulu people of Malaysia
Atingting kon, wooden slit drums from Vanuatu
An Indonesian gamelan ensemble
A kanaka maoli (native) from Hawaii performing the hula
Kapa haka of the Māori people
Traditional song and dance at a funeral in Tana Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet, traditional theatre dance from Java, Indonesia
Gending Sriwijaya, traditional dance from Palembang, Indonesia
A Minahasan Kabasaran war dancer from Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Kecak dancers from Bali, Indonesia
Hudoq, traditional dance from Kalimantan, Indonesia
Aloalo funerary pole of the Sakalava people of Madagascar
Adu zatua ancestor carvings of the Nias people of western Indonesia
Taotao carvings of anito ancestor spirits from the Ifugao people, Philippines
Stone tiki from Hiva Oa, Marquesas
Ki'i carving at Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau, Hawaii
Māori poupou from the Ruato tomb of Rotorua
Moai in Ahu Tongariki, Rapa Nui
Toraja tau tau (wooden statue of the deceased) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestors in Bali, Indonesia

The Spanish philologist Lorenzo Hervás later devoted a large part of his Idea dell'universo (1778–1787) to the establishment of a language family linking the Malay Peninsula, the Maldives, Madagascar, the Sunda Islands, Moluccas, the Philippines, and the Pacific Islands eastward to Easter Island.

Map of the Philippines at the end of the 19th century.

Philippine Revolution

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Map of the Philippines at the end of the 19th century.
A sketch of a Spanish galleon during Manila-Acapulco Trade.
Leaders of the reform movement in Spain: José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce. Photo was taken in Spain in 1890.
Ilustrados in Madrid, c.1890; Standing clockwise from left: Vicente Francisco, Cajigas, José Abreu, Mariano Abella, Dominador Gómez, Francisco Tongio Liongson, Flaviano Cordecruz, a Tuazon from Malabon, Alejandro Yance de Lara, Lauro Dimayuga, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Gregorio Aguilera, José Rizal, José Alejandrino, Baldomero Roxas, Moises Salvador, Modesto Reyes, Gaudencio Juanengo, Pablo Rianzares Bautista; Seated from left: Dr. Santamaria, Candido Morada, Damaso Ponce, Ariston Bautista, Pedro Serrano Lactao, and Teodoro Sandiko
Priests Mariano Gómez, Jacinto Zamora, and José Burgos (L-R, remembered in Philippine history as Gomburza)
A copy of La Solidaridad (Solidarity)
Bonifacio's Katipunan battle flag.
Monument for the 1896 Revolution in University of the Philippines Diliman.
Katipunan supreme leader Andrés Bonifacio
Rizal's execution in what was then Bagumbayan.
Emilio Aguinaldo as a field marshal during the battle.
Inang Filipina Shrine
Panorama of the Park and the Shrine
Facade
The flag used by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
Battle of Manila Bay.
Thomas M. Anderson
General Gregorio del Pilar
Map of the Philippines during the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic.
Felipe Agoncillo was the Filipino representative to the negotiations in Paris that led to the Treaty of Paris (1898), ending the Spanish–American War. He has been referred to as the "outstanding first Filipino diplomat."

The Philippine Revolution (Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War (Guerra Tagala) by the Spanish, was a revolution, a civil war and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities of the Spanish East Indies, under the Spanish Empire (Kingdom of Spain).

President of the Philippines

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Petitions were filed before the current Philippine government to recognize Andres Bonifacio as the first Philippine president.
Emilio Aguinaldo and ten of the Malolos Congress delegates that passed the Constitución Política de la República Filipina in 1899
Manuel Luis Quezon, the first president of the Philippine Commonwealth, is officially recognized as the second president of the Philippines
José P. Laurel giving a speech after his inauguration as President of the Second Philippine Republic
Home provinces (blue and purple) of the presidents.
Carlos P. Garcia is sworn in as the eighth president of the Philippines after winning the election of 1957
Rodrigo Duterte during his inauguration
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo delivering her seventh State of the Nation Address at the Batasang Pambansa
Ferdinand Marcos was the only president to serve three terms (1965–1969, 1969–1981, 1981–1986).
Sergio Osmeña was the first vice president to succeed to the presidency upon the death of a chief executive, who was Manuel L. Quezon, in 1944.
An Aérospatiale SA-330 Puma carrying President Corazon C. Aquino at Subic Bay Naval Base.
Presidents Emilio Aguinaldo and Manuel L. Quezon during the 1935 campaign.
Bongbong Marcos during his inauguration
Malacañang Palace, the official residence

The president of the Philippines (, sometimes referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas) is the head of state and the head of government and chief executive of the Philippines.

Malaysia

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Country in Southeast Asia.

Country in Southeast Asia.

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya
Topographic map of Malaysia; Mount Kinabalu is the highest summit in the country.
Köppen climate classification of Malaysia. The country is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Kuala Lumpur, the financial centre of Malaysia
The distribution of language families of Malaysia shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) 
Malayic
Bornean
Aslian
Land Dayak
Sama–Bajaw
Philippine
Chinese
Areas with multiple languages

East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam.

Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).