Philology

philologistphilologicalgrammarianphilologistsgrammariansclassical philologyphilologicallyphilologRomance PhilologyClassical philologist
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.wikipedia
3,581 Related Articles

Textual criticism

critical editiontextual scholarstextual critic
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and of literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants, or different versions, of either manuscripts or of printed books.

Germanic philology

Germanic studiesGermanicGermanic linguistics
It was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, and eventually resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian (European) (Germanic, Celtic), Eurasian (Slavistics, etc.) Asian (Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, etc.) and African (Egyptian, Nubian, Songhay, etc.) languages.
Germanic philology is the philological study of the Germanic languages, particularly from a comparative or historical perspective.

Slavic studies

SlavistSlavisticsSlavicist
It was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, and eventually resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian (European) (Germanic, Celtic), Eurasian (Slavistics, etc.) Asian (Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, etc.) and African (Egyptian, Nubian, Songhay, etc.) languages.
Originally, a Slavist (from Russian славист or Polish slawista) or Slavicist was primarily a linguist or philologist researching Slavistics, a Slavic (AmE) or Slavonic (BrE) scholar.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Before the 20th century, the term philology, first attested in 1716, was commonly used to refer to the study of language, which was then predominantly historical in focus.

Sinology

sinologistChinese studiessinologists
It was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, and eventually resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian (European) (Germanic, Celtic), Eurasian (Slavistics, etc.) Asian (Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, etc.) and African (Egyptian, Nubian, Songhay, etc.) languages.
The field of sinology was historically seen to be equivalent to the application of philology to China and until the 20th century was generally seen as meaning "Chinese philology" (language and literature).

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
In the 18th century, the first use of the comparative method by British philologist and expert on ancient India William Jones sparked the rise of comparative linguistics.

Renaissance humanism

humanistRenaissance humanisthumanists
It was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, and eventually resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian (European) (Germanic, Celtic), Eurasian (Slavistics, etc.) Asian (Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, etc.) and African (Egyptian, Nubian, Songhay, etc.) languages.
In France, pre-eminent humanist Guillaume Budé (1467–1540) applied the philological methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code.

Giacomo Leopardi

LeopardiIl sabato del villaggioLeopardi, Giacomo
Due to the rapid progress made in understanding sound laws and language change, the "golden age of philology" lasted throughout the 19th century, or "from Giacomo Leopardi and Friedrich Schlegel to Nietzsche".
Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (, ; 29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.

Historical linguistics

diachronichistorical linguistshistorical linguist
The meaning of "love of learning and literature" was narrowed to "the study of the historical development of languages" (historical linguistics) in 19th-century usage of the term.
It grew out of the earlier discipline of philology, the study of ancient texts and documents dating back to antiquity.

Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheNietzscheanFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
Due to the rapid progress made in understanding sound laws and language change, the "golden age of philology" lasted throughout the 19th century, or "from Giacomo Leopardi and Friedrich Schlegel to Nietzsche".
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (, or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history.

J. R. R. Tolkien

J.R.R. TolkienTolkienJRR Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien opposed the nationalist reaction against philological practices, claiming that "the philological instinct" was "universal as is the use of language". In the Space Trilogy by C.S. Lewis, the main character, Elwin Ransom, is a philologist - as was Lewis' close friend J. R. R. Tolkien.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and academic, who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich SchlegelFriedrich von SchlegelSchlegel
Due to the rapid progress made in understanding sound laws and language change, the "golden age of philology" lasted throughout the 19th century, or "from Giacomo Leopardi and Friedrich Schlegel to Nietzsche".
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel ( 10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.

Decipherment

decipherdecipheringdeciphered
Philology's interest in ancient languages led to the study of what were, in the 18th century, "exotic" languages, for the light they could cast on problems in understanding and deciphering the origins of older texts.
In philology, decipherment is the discovery of the meaning of texts written in ancient or obscure languages or scripts.

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanPIEIndo-European
It is now named Proto-Indo-European.
Many consider William Jones, an Anglo-Welsh philologist and puisne judge in Bengal, to have begun Indo-European studies in 1786, when he postulated the common ancestry of Sanskrit, Latin, and Greek.

New Philology

alphabetic texts in Nahuatlindigenous languagestexts in indigenous languages
The movement known as New Philology has rejected textual criticism because it injects editorial interpretations into the text and destroys the integrity of the individual manuscript, hence damaging the reliability of the data.
New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view.

Jean-François Champollion

ChampollionJean-Francois ChampollionJean François Champollion
Beginning with the famous decipherment and translation of the Rosetta Stone by Jean-François Champollion in 1822, a number of individuals attempted to decipher the writing systems of the Ancient Near East and Aegean.
Jean-François Champollion (Champollion le jeune; 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, known primarily as the decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphs and a founding figure in the field of Egyptology.

Martianus Capella

MartianusCapellanCapella
As an allegory of literary erudition, philologia appears in fifth-century postclassical literature (Martianus Capella, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii), an idea revived in Late Medieval literature (Chaucer, Lydgate).
Its frame story in the first two books relates the courtship and wedding of Mercury (intelligent or profitable pursuit), who has been refused by Wisdom, Divination and the Soul, with the maiden Philologia (learning, or more literally the love of letters and study), who is made immortal under the protection of the gods, the Muses, the Cardinal Virtues and the Graces.

Ferdinand de Saussure

SaussureSaussurianSaussurean
Philology, with its focus on historical development (diachronic analysis), is contrasted with linguistics due to Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis.
While a student, Saussure published an important work in Indo-European philology that proposed the existence of ghosts in Proto-Indo-European called sonant coefficients.

Celtic studies

CelticistCelticistsCeltic
It was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, and eventually resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian (European) (Germanic, Celtic), Eurasian (Slavistics, etc.) Asian (Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, etc.) and African (Egyptian, Nubian, Songhay, etc.) languages.

Michael Ventris

VentrisMichael George Francis VentrisVentris, Michael George Francis
Linear B, a script used in the ancient Aegean, was deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, who demonstrated that it recorded an early form of Greek, now known as Mycenaean Greek.
Michael George Francis Ventris, (12 July 1922 – 6 September 1956) was an English architect, classicist and philologist who deciphered Linear B, the ancient Mycenaean Greek script.

The Space Trilogy

Space TrilogyOyarsaField of Arbol
In the Space Trilogy by C.S. Lewis, the main character, Elwin Ransom, is a philologist - as was Lewis' close friend J. R. R. Tolkien.
A philologist named Elwin Ransom is the hero of the first two novels and an important character in the third.

Palaeography

Palaeographicallypaleographicallypaleography
Palaeography can be an essential skill for historians and philologists, as it tackles two main difficulties.

Etymology

etymologicaletymologicallyetymologies
Even though etymological research originally grew from the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.

Moritz-Maria von Igelfeld

Professor Dr Moritz-Maria von IgelfeldProfessor Dr von Igelfeld
Moritz-Maria von Igelfeld, the main character in Alexander McCall Smith's 1997 comic novel Portuguese Irregular Verbs is a philologist, educated at Cambridge.

Portuguese Irregular Verbs

Moritz-Maria von Igelfeld, the main character in Alexander McCall Smith's 1997 comic novel Portuguese Irregular Verbs is a philologist, educated at Cambridge.
German professor Moritz-Maria von Igelfeld feels that he is not accorded the scholarly recognition and veneration he deserves, though he has a good position as a philologist at the Institute of Romance Philology in Regensburg, Germany.