Philosophes

philosophephilosophical sentiments
The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.wikipedia
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Republic of Letters

Republique des LettresRespublica literariaRépublique des Lettres
They promoted a "republic of letters" that crossed national boundaries and allowed intellectuals to freely exchange books and ideas.
It fostered communication among the intellectuals of the Age of Enlightenment, or philosophes as they were called in France.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.
Philosophes introduced the public to many scientific theories, most notably through the Encyclopédie and the popularization of Newtonianism by Voltaire and Émilie du Châtelet.

Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersEncyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersEncyclopedie
Many contributed to Diderot's Encyclopédie.
Many of the philosophes (intellectuals of the French Enlightenment) contributed to the Encyclopédie, including Diderot himself, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

RousseauJean Jacques RousseauJ.-J. Rousseau
The Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for example, wrote a political tract, a treatise on education, constitutions for Poland and Corsica, an analysis of the effects of the theater on public morals, a best-selling novel, an opera, and a highly influential autobiography.
The first to criticize Rousseau were his fellow Philosophes, above all, Voltaire.

Voltaire

François-Marie ArouetVoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
Voltaire took religious fanaticism as his chief target: "Once fanaticism has corrupted a mind, the malady is almost incurable" and that "the only remedy for this epidemic malady is the philosophical spirit".

Cesare Beccaria

BeccariaCesare, Marquis of BeccariaMarquis Cesare Beccaria
He travelled with the Verri brothers and was given a warm reception by the philosophes.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.

Intellectual

man of letterspublic intellectualintellectuals
The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
Few were primarily philosophers; rather, philosophes were public intellectuals who applied reason to the study of many areas of learning, including philosophy, history, science, politics, economics, and social issues.

Progress

social progressscientific progressIdea of Progress
They strongly endorsed progress and tolerance, and distrusted organized religion (most were deists) and feudal institutions.

Organized religion

organised religioninstitutional religioncodification of new forms of religion
They strongly endorsed progress and tolerance, and distrusted organized religion (most were deists) and feudal institutions.

Deism

deistdeistsdeistic
They strongly endorsed progress and tolerance, and distrusted organized religion (most were deists) and feudal institutions.

Feudalism

feudalfeudal systemfeudal lord
They strongly endorsed progress and tolerance, and distrusted organized religion (most were deists) and feudal institutions.

Denis Diderot

DiderotDiderot, DenisDiderot of China
Many contributed to Diderot's Encyclopédie.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
They faded away after the French Revolution reached a violent stage in 1793.

Philadelphia

Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, PACity of Philadelphia
Although philosophe is a French word, the Enlightenment was distinctly cosmopolitan; philosophes could be found from Philadelphia to Saint Petersburg.

Saint Petersburg

St. PetersburgLeningradSt Petersburg
Although philosophe is a French word, the Enlightenment was distinctly cosmopolitan; philosophes could be found from Philadelphia to Saint Petersburg.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant summed up the program of the Enlightenment in two Latin words: sapere aude, "dare to know", meaning, have the courage to think for yourself.

Sapere aude

Dimidium facti qui coepit habet.Sapére Aude
In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant summed up the program of the Enlightenment in two Latin words: sapere aude, "dare to know", meaning, have the courage to think for yourself.

Natural law

laws of naturenatural lawslaw of nature
The philosophes wanted freedom of the press and freedom of religion, which they considered "natural rights" guaranteed by "natural law."

Horace Walpole

Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of OrfordWalpoleHorace
Horace Walpole in 1779 remarked that "[t]he philosophes, except Buffon, are solemn, arrogant, dictatorial s."

Peter Gay

Gay, Peter
Historian Peter Gay, for example, uses it to apply to all Enlightenment philosophers "from Edinburgh to Naples, Paris to Berlin, Boston to Philadelphia".