# Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

PrincipiaPhilosophiae Naturalis Principia MathematicaPrincipia MathematicaMathematical Principles of Natural PhilosophyA Treatise of the System of the WorldNewton's ''PrincipiaNewton's PrincipiaThe Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy1687On the System of the World
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.wikipedia
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### Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics.

### Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Isaac Newton's book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), whose title translates to "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", reflects the then-current use of the words "natural philosophy", akin to "systematic study of nature".

### Newton's laws of motion

Newton's second lawNewton's third lawNewton's second law of motion
The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).
The three laws of motion were first compiled by Isaac Newton in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687.

### Newton's law of universal gravitation

law of universal gravitationuniversal gravitationNewtonian gravity
The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).
It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"), first published on 5 July 1687.

### Alexis Clairaut

Alexis Claude ClairautClairautAlexis Claude Clairault
The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton ... spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses."
He was a prominent Newtonian whose work helped to establish the validity of the principles and results that Sir Isaac Newton had outlined in the Principia of 1687.

### Calculus

infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus
In formulating his physical theories, Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus.
He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion, the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid, the oblateness of the earth, the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid, and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687).

### Kepler's laws of planetary motion

Kepler's third lawKepler's lawslaws of planetary motion
The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).
The reception in Germany changed noticeably between 1688, the year in which Newton's Principia was published and was taken to be basically Copernican, and 1690, by which time work of Gottfried Leibniz on Kepler had been published.

### De motu corporum in gyrum

On the motion of bodies in an orbitTheory of Gravitation
The opening sections of the Principia contain, in revised and extended form, nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract De motu corporum in gyrum.
After further encouragement from Halley, Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in De Motu – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia.

### Edmond Halley

Edmund HalleyHalleySir Edmund Halley
He also gives starting at Lemma 4 and Proposition 40 the theory of the motions of comets, for which much data came from John Flamsteed and Edmond Halley, and accounts for the tides, attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun and Moon to the tidal motions; and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes. In January 1684, Edmond Halley, Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law, but also all the laws of planetary motion.
He aided in observationally proving Isaac Newton's laws of motion, and funded the publication of Newton's influential Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

### Boyle's law

compressedBoyleBoyle's Gas Law
Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 ) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids; Newton also derives Boyle's law.

### Hypotheses non fingo

feign no hypothesesI feign no hypothesesI frame no hypotheses
In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium), Newton used his expression that became famous, Hypotheses non fingo ("I feign no hypotheses").
Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for "I feign no hypotheses", "I frame no hypotheses", or "I contrive no hypotheses") is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay, "General Scholium", which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia.

### Three-body problem

restricted three-body problem3-body problemcircular restricted three-body problem
This section is of primary interest for its application to the Solar System, and includes Proposition 66 along with its 22 corollaries: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions, a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons, for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem.
The gravitational problem of three bodies in its traditional sense dates in substance from 1687, when Isaac Newton published his "Principia" (Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica).

### Johannes Kepler

KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler
The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).
This culminated in Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (1687), in which Newton derived Kepler's laws of planetary motion from a force-based theory of universal gravitation.

### Opticks

OpticsNewton's ''OpticksNewton's theories of refraction
At this time, his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response, and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others, which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response.
The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science, different from but in some ways rivalling the Principia.

### Variation (astronomy)

variation
Here (introduced by Proposition 22, and continuing in Propositions 25–35 ) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon, especially the variation.
In 1687 Newton published, in the 'Principia', his first steps in the gravitational analysis of the motion of three mutually-attracting bodies.

### Teleological argument

argument from designdesign argumentteleological
From the system of the world, he inferred the existence of a Lord God, along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design.
Isaac Newton affirmed his belief in the truth of the argument when, in 1713, he wrote these words in an appendix to the second edition of his Principia: This most elegant system of the sun, planets, and comets could not have arisen without the design and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being.

### Classical mechanics

Newtonian mechanicsNewtonian physicsclassical
The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics; Newton's law of universal gravitation; and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).
Both Newton's second and third laws were given the proper scientific and mathematical treatment in Newton's Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Here they are distinguished from earlier attempts at explaining similar phenomena, which were either incomplete, incorrect, or given little accurate mathematical expression.

### Action at a distance

action-at-a-distancenonlocalityAction at a distance (physics)
Newton's gravitational attraction, an invisible force able to act over vast distances, had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science.
Different authors have attempted to clarify the aspects of remote action and God’s involvement on the basis of textual investigations, mainly from the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley (1692/93), and Queries that Newton introduced at the end of the Opticks book in the first three editions (between 1704 and 1721).

### Christiaan Huygens

HuygensChristian HuygensChristiaan Huyghens
The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted; for example, Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs, and was assured about their correctness.
His work on pendulums came very close to the theory of simple harmonic motion; but the topic was covered fully for the first time by Newton, in Book II of his Principia Mathematica (1687).

### Robert Hooke

HookeDr Robert HookeHooke, Robert
At this time, his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response, and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others, which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. In January 1684, Edmond Halley, Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law, but also all the laws of planetary motion.
In 1686, when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that he had given Newton the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center".

### Principles of Philosophy

Principia PhilosophiaePrincipes de la philosophiePrincipia
Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people, among them himself, to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether.
Newton borrowed this principle from Descartes and included it in his own Principia; to this day, it is still generally referred to as Newton's First Law of Motion.

lemma 28
Propositions 11–31 establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses, and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus, and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28).
Isaac Newton stated it as lemma 28 of section VI of book 1 of Newton's Principia, and used it to show that the position of a planet moving in an orbit is not an algebraic function of time.

### Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher WrenWrenWren-Gibbs
In January 1684, Edmond Halley, Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law, but also all the laws of planetary motion.
It was a problem posed by Wren that serves as an ultimate source to the conception of Newton's Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis.

### University of Sydney Library

Fisher LibraryConservatorium LibraryFisher Library at the University of Sydney
Amongst the collection are many rare items such as one of the two extant copies of the Gospel of Barnabas, and an annotated first edition of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Sir Isaac Newton, which is also available in the Digital Collections..

### Abraham de Moivre

de MoivreDe Moivre, AbrahamAbraham Demoivre
(Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results, but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject.
De Moivre continued his studies of mathematics after visiting the Earl of Devonshire and seeing Newton's recent book, Principia Mathematica.