Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophyphilosophersphilosophieshistorian of philosophyphilosophicapplied philosophyphilosophicallyphilosophical studies
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.wikipedia
10,413 Related Articles

Absolute (philosophy)

Absolutethe Absoluteultimate reality
What is most real?
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as Brahman, The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc. that possesses maximal ontological status, existential ranking, existential greatness, or existentiality.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.

Philosophical methodology

philosophical methodsystematic philosophymethods
Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.
Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.

Sophia (wisdom)

SophiaWisdomHoly Wisdom
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Originally carrying a meaning of "cleverness, skill", the later meaning of the term, close to the meaning of Phronesis ("wisdom, intelligence"), was significantly shaped by the term philosophy ("love of sophia") as used by Plato.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between possibility and actuality.

Medicine

medicalmedical sciencemedicinal
From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.
Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture.

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

Aesthetics

aestheticart theoryphilosophy of art
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty and taste and with the creation or appreciation of beauty.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems, while others defend the platonic definition.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

Philosophy of science

philosopher of sciencephilosophers of sciencephilosophy
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.
New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as academics.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

Contemporary philosophy

21st-century philosophy21st century PhilosophyContemporary
In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of Western philosophy (namely the philosophy of the 20th and 21st centuries).

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Political philosophy is a branch of philosophy.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy (since ancient times) and mathematics (since the mid-19th century), and recently logic has been studied in computer science, linguistics, psychology, and other fields.

Western philosophy

Westernlate modern philosophyphilosophy
Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales (c. 624–546 BCE) and Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE) who practiced a "love of wisdom" (philosophia) and were also termed physiologoi (students of physis, or nature). Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.
The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society.

Medieval philosophy

medievalmedieval philosophersmedieval philosopher
Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Medieval philosophy is a term used to refer to the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century.

Modern philosophy

modernmodern philosophersphilosophy
Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosopherGreekGreek philosophers
Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Philosophy was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way.

Beauty

beautifuldecorativecosmetic
For example, is beauty objective or subjective?
Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, culture, social psychology, philosophy and sociology.

Epicureanism

EpicureanEpicureansEpicurean philosophy
Other traditions include Cynicism, Stoicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.
The ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology.