Philosophywikipedia
philosophyphilosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophyphilosophershistorian of philosophyphilosophicphilosophiesapplied philosophyphilosophically

Absolute (philosophy)

Absolutethe Absoluteinterconnected
What is most real?
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc. that possesses maximal ontological status, existential ranking, existential greatness, or existentiality.

Philosophical methodology

philosophical methodsystematic philosophyphilosophical methodology
Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.
Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.

Reason

reasonreasoningratiocination
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophynatural philosophernatural philosophers
From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

Metaphysics

metaphysicsmetaphysicalmetaphysician
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the essence of a thing.

Ethics

ethicsethicalmoral philosophy
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

Aesthetics

aestheticsaestheticart theory
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

Philosophy of science

philosophy of sciencephilosopher of sciencephilosophers of science
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

Epistemology

epistemologyepistemologicalepistemic
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

Philosopher

philosopherphilosopherssage
Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

Sophia (wisdom)

SophiaWisdomHoly Wisdom
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Originally carrying a meaning of "cleverness, skill", the later meaning of the term, close to the meaning of Phronesis ("wisdom, intelligence"), was significantly shaped by the term philosophy ("love of sophia") as used by Plato.

Western philosophy

Westernwestern philosophylate modern philosophy
Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales (c. 624–546 BCE) and Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE) who practiced a "love of wisdom" (philosophia) and were also termed physiologoi (students of physis, or nature). Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

Medicine

medicinemedicalmedical science
From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.
Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture.

Political philosophy

political philosophypolitical theorypolitical philosopher
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Political philosophy is a branch of philosophy.

Metaphilosophy

metaphilosophymetaphilosophicalphilosophical progress
Colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval.
Metaphilosophy (sometimes called philosophy of philosophy) is "the investigation of the nature of philosophy".

Medieval philosophy

medieval philosophymedievalmedieval philosophers
Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Medieval philosophy is a term used to refer to the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century.

Modern philosophy

modern philosophymodernmodern philosophers
Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.

Physics

physicsphysicistphysical
From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics.
New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy.

Logic

logiclogicianlogical
Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy (since ancient times) and mathematics (since the mid-19th century), and recently logic has been studied in computer science, linguistics, psychology, and other fields.

Epicureanism

EpicureanEpicureansepicureanism
Other traditions include Cynicism, Stoicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus.

Ancient Greek philosophy

ancient Greek philosophyGreek philosopherGreek
Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), and Modern philosophy.
Philosophy was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way.

Contemporary philosophy

21st-century philosophy21st century Philosophycontemporary philosophy
In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of Western philosophy (namely the philosophy of the 20th and 21st centuries).

Knowledge

knowledgeknowhuman knowledge
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers to be problematic because of the Gettier problems while others defend the platonic definition.

Humanism

humanisthumanismhumanistic
The Renaissance period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust Humanism.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

Roger Bacon

Roger BaconBaconBacon, Roger
Some key Medieval thinkers include St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Boethius, Anselm and Roger Bacon.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus; ), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.