Phineas Gage

Phineas CageThe Unkillable Phineas Gage
Phineas P. Gage (1823–1860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage."wikipedia
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John Martyn Harlow

Dr. John Martyn Harlow
Town doctor John Martyn Harlow described Gage as "a perfectly healthy, strong and active young man, twenty-five years of age, nervo-bilious temperament, five feet six inches [5 ft] in height, average weight one hundred and fifty pounds [150 lb], possessing an iron will as well as an iron frame; muscular system unusually well developedhaving had scarcely a day's illness from his childhood to the date of [his] injury".
John Martyn Harlow (1819–1907) was an American physician primarily remembered for his attendance on brain-injury survivor Phineas Gage, and for his published reports on Gage's accident and subsequent history.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Gage is a fixture in the curricula of neurology, psychology, and neuroscience, one of "the great medical curiosities of all time" and "a living part of the medical folklore" frequently mentioned in books and scientific papers; he even has a minor place in popular culture.
From Phineas Gage to H.M. and Clive Wearing, individual people with mental issues traceable to physical damage have inspired new discoveries in this area.

Frontal lobe

frontal cortexfrontalfrontal lobes
Phineas P. Gage (1823–1860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage."
This personality change is characteristic of damage to the frontal lobe and was exemplified in the case of Phineas Gage.

Edward H. Williams

About 30 minutes after the accident physician Edward H. Williams, finding Gage sitting in a chair outside the hotel, was greeted with "one of the great understatements of medical history":
While living in Cavendish, Vermont he was the first physician to see brain-injury survivor Phineas Gage after Gage's famous accident.

Henry Jacob Bigelow

Bigelow
In November 1849, Henry Jacob Bigelow, the Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, brought Gage to Boston for several weeks and, after satisfying himself that the tamping iron had actually passed through Gage's head, presented him to a meeting of the Boston Society for Medical Improvement and (possibly) to the medical school class.
He was instrumental in bringing the anesthetic possibilities of ether to the attention of medical men, and rescuing the case of Phineas Gage from relative obscurity.

Boston Society for Medical Improvement

Society for Medical Improvement
In November 1849, Henry Jacob Bigelow, the Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, brought Gage to Boston for several weeks and, after satisfying himself that the tamping iron had actually passed through Gage's head, presented him to a meeting of the Boston Society for Medical Improvement and (possibly) to the medical school class.
On November 10, 1849, Henry Jacob Bigelow presented Phineas Gage to the Society, between the cases of a stalagmite "remarkable for its singular resemblance to a petrified penis" and a child cured of a swollen ankle by a Dr. Strong.

Lebanon, New Hampshire

LebanonLebanon, NHLebanon (city)
Though recognizing his mother and uncle—summoned from Lebanon, New Hampshire, 30 miles (50km) away on the morning after the accident, on the second day he "lost control of his mind, and became decidedly delirious".

Rutland Railroad

Rutland RailwayRutlandRutland and Burlington Railroad
On September 13, 1848, Gage was for the [[Rutland Railway|]] south of the village of [[Cavendish (CDP), Vermont|]].
* Phineas Gage

Index case

patient zeroindex patientfirst case
Though Gage is considered the "index case for personality change due to frontal lobe damage", the uncertain extent of his brain damage and the limited understanding of his behavioral changes render him "of more historical then neurologic interest".
An index case will sometimes achieve the status of a "classic" case study in the literature, as did Phineas Gage, the first known person to exhibit a definitive personality change as a result of a brain injury.

Cypress Lawn Memorial Park

Cypress Lawn Cemetery
In 1940 Gage's headless remains were moved to Cypress Lawn Memorial Park as part of a mandated relocation of San Francisco's dead to new resting places outside city limits.

Warren Anatomical Museum

Anatomy museums
About a year after the accident, Gage had given his tamping iron to Harvard Medical School's Warren Anatomical Museum, but he later reclaimed it and made what he called "my iron bar" his "constant companion during the remainder of his life";
and the skull of Phineas Gage, who survived a large iron bar being driven through his brain.

Woburn, Massachusetts

WoburnWoburn, MACharlestown Village
At Harlow's request the family had Gage's skull exhumed, then personally delivered it to Harlow, who was by then a prominent physician, and civic leader in Woburn, Massachusetts.

Somatic marker hypothesis

Somaticsomatic markersSomatic markers hypothesis
Antonio Damasio, in support of his somatic marker hypothesis (relating decision-making to emotions and their biological underpinnings), draws parallels between behaviors he ascribes to Gage and those of modern patients with damage to the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala.
Patients with frontal lobe damage, such as Phineas Gage, provided the first evidence that the frontal lobes were associated with decision-making.

Henry Molaison

HMH.M.patient HM
Thiebaut de Schotten et al. estimated white-matter damage in Gage and two other famous patients ("Tan" and "H.M."), concluding that these three cases "suggest that social behavior, language, and memory depend on the coordinated activity of different [brain] regions rather than single areas in the frontal or temporal lobes."

Lobotomy

lobotomizedlobotomiesleucotomy
It is frequently asserted that what happened to Gage played a role in the later development of various forms of psychosurgeryparticularly lobotomyor even that Gage's accident constituted "the first lobotomy".

Psychosurgery

psychosurgicalprefrontal lobotomypsycho surgery
It is frequently asserted that what happened to Gage played a role in the later development of various forms of psychosurgeryparticularly lobotomyor even that Gage's accident constituted "the first lobotomy".

Traumatic brain injury

traumatic brain injuriesbrain traumabrain injury
Perhaps the first reported case of personality change after brain injury is that of Phineas Gage, who survived an accident in which a large iron rod was driven through his head, destroying one or both of his frontal lobes; numerous cases of personality change after brain injury have been reported since.

Prognosis

prognosticprognosesprognostication
Long known as the "American Crowbar Case"once termed "the case which more than all others is to excite our wonder, impair the value of prognosis, and even to subvert our [[physiology|]] doctrines"Phineas Gage influenced 19th-century discussion about the mind and brain, debate on cerebral, and was perhaps the first case to suggest the brain's role in, and that damage to specific parts of the brain might induce specific mental changes.

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
Long known as the "American Crowbar Case"once termed "the case which more than all others is to excite our wonder, impair the value of prognosis, and even to subvert our [[physiology|]] doctrines"Phineas Gage influenced 19th-century discussion about the mind and brain, debate on cerebral, and was perhaps the first case to suggest the brain's role in, and that damage to specific parts of the brain might induce specific mental changes.

Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologists
Gage is a fixture in the curricula of neurology, psychology, and neuroscience, one of "the great medical curiosities of all time" and "a living part of the medical folklore" frequently mentioned in books and scientific papers; he even has a minor place in popular culture.

Neuroscience

neurobiologyneuroscientistneurosciences
Gage is a fixture in the curricula of neurology, psychology, and neuroscience, one of "the great medical curiosities of all time" and "a living part of the medical folklore" frequently mentioned in books and scientific papers; he even has a minor place in popular culture.

Rorschach test

Rorschach inkblot testRorschachinkblot
Despite this celebrity, the body of established fact about Gage and what he was like (whether before or after his injury) is small, which has allowed "the fitting of almost any theory [desired] to the small number of facts we have"Gage acting as a "Rorschach inkblot" in which proponents of various conflicting theories of the brain all saw support for their views.

Stagecoach

stage coachstagestagecoaches
A social recovery hypothesis suggests that his work as a stagecoach driver in Chile fostered this recovery by providing daily structure which allowed him to regain lost social and personal skills.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
A social recovery hypothesis suggests that his work as a stagecoach driver in Chile fostered this recovery by providing daily structure which allowed him to regain lost social and personal skills.

Grafton County, New Hampshire

Grafton CountyGrafton Grafton County, New Hampshire
Gage was the first of five children born to Jesse Eaton Gage and Hannah Trussell (Swetland) Gage of Grafton County, New Hampshire.