Phoenician alphabet

PhoenicianPhoenician scriptSemiticPhoenician letteralphabetPhoeniciansPhoenician lettersPhoenician writing systemphonetic written scriptEuropean writing systems
The Phoenician alphabet (also called the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet when found in the Levantine interior ) is an alphabet of abjad type, consisting of 22 consonant letters only, leaving vowel sounds implicit, although certain late varieties use matres lectionis for some vowels.wikipedia
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Alphabet

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The Phoenician alphabet (also called the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet when found in the Levantine interior ) is an alphabet of abjad type, consisting of 22 consonant letters only, leaving vowel sounds implicit, although certain late varieties use matres lectionis for some vowels. in the Syro-Hittite kingdoms, is the oldest fully matured alphabet, ultimately derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs.
The first fully phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, and is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and possibly Brahmic.

Abjad

Semitic abjadsconsonantal alphabetabjads
The Phoenician alphabet (also called the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet when found in the Levantine interior ) is an alphabet of abjad type, consisting of 22 consonant letters only, leaving vowel sounds implicit, although certain late varieties use matres lectionis for some vowels.
The ordering of Arabic letters used to match that of the older Hebrew, Phoenician and Semitic alphabets: '.

Phoenicia

PhoeniciansPhoenicianPhoenicio
Its use in Phoenicia (coastal Levant) led to its wide dissemination outside of the Canaanite sphere,
Around 1050 BC, a Phoenician alphabet was used for the writing of Phoenician.

Old Aramaic language

Imperial AramaicOld AramaicAramaic
In the Early Iron Age, the Phoenician alphabet is used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew and Old Aramaic.
The alphabet of Aramaic then seems to be based on the Phoenician alphabet, and there is a unity in the written language.

Greek alphabet

GreekGreek lettersGreek letter
The Greek alphabet in turn gave rise to numerous derived scripts, including Latin, Cyrillic, Runic, and Coptic.
It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants.

Biblical Hebrew

Hebrew languageHebrewClassical Hebrew
In the Early Iron Age, the Phoenician alphabet is used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew and Old Aramaic.
The Hebrews adopted the Phoenician alphabet around the 12th century BCE, which developed into the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
The Greek alphabet in turn gave rise to numerous derived scripts, including Latin, Cyrillic, Runic, and Coptic.
The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Etruscan alphabet, which evolved from the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, which was itself descended from the Phoenician alphabet, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics.

Moabite language

Moabiteobm
In the Early Iron Age, the Phoenician alphabet is used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew and Old Aramaic.
It was written using a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.

Mater lectionis

matres lectionisalsoconsonants to imply vowels
The Phoenician alphabet (also called the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet when found in the Levantine interior ) is an alphabet of abjad type, consisting of 22 consonant letters only, leaving vowel sounds implicit, although certain late varieties use matres lectionis for some vowels.
Matres lectionis are extensively employed only in Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac and Arabic, but the phenomenon is also found in the Ugaritic, Moabite, South Arabian and Phoenician alphabets.

Proto-Sinaitic script

Proto-Sinaitic alphabetProto-SinaiticMiddle Bronze Age alphabets
The earliest known alphabetic (or "proto-alphabetic") inscriptions are the so-called Proto-Sinaitic (or Proto-Canaanite) script sporadically attested in the Sinai and in Canaan in the late Middle and Late Bronze Age.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, and Proto-Canaanite (when found in Canaan), is a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, considered the earliest trace of alphabetic writing, and the common ancestor of the Ancient South Arabian script and Phoenician alphabet (and by extension, every other subsequent alphabet).

Hebrew alphabet

HebrewHebrew scriptHebrew letters
Hebrew and Arabic scripts, among others.
A distinct Hebrew variant of the Phoenician script, called the paleo-Hebrew alphabet by scholars, emerged around 800 BCE.

Arabic alphabet

ArabicArabic scriptArabic letters
Hebrew and Arabic scripts, among others.
The original order, used for lettering, derives from the order of the Phoenician alphabet, and is therefore similar to the order of other Phoenician-derived alphabets, such as the Hebrew alphabet.

Phoenician language

PhoenicianPhoenician-PunicPhenician-Punic
In the Early Iron Age, the Phoenician alphabet is used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew and Old Aramaic.
The Phoenician alphabet is the oldest verified consonantal alphabet, or abjad. It has become conventional to refer to the script as "Proto-Canaanite" until the mid-11th century BC, when it is first attested on inscribed bronze arrowheads, and as "Phoenician" only after 1050 BC.

History of the Greek alphabet

Ionic alphabetGreek alphabetEuclidean alphabet
According to Herodotus, the Phoenician prince Cadmus was accredited with the introduction of the Phoenician alphabet—phoinikeia grammata, "Phoenician letters"—to the Greeks, who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet.
The history of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letter forms and continues to the present day.

Samaritan alphabet

SamaritanSamaritan scriptAncient Hebrew script
The Phoenician alphabet proper remained in use in Ancient Carthage until the 2nd century BC, while elsewhere it diversified into numerous national alphabets, including the Aramaic and Samaritan, several Anatolian scripts, and the early Greek alphabets.
Samaritan is a direct descendant of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, which was a variety of the Phoenician alphabet in which large parts of the Hebrew Bible were originally penned.

Edomite language

Edomitexdm
In the Early Iron Age, the Phoenician alphabet is used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew and Old Aramaic.
In early times, it seems to have been written with a Phoenician alphabet.

Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

Paleo-HebrewPaleo-Hebrew scriptPalaeo-Hebrew script
The Phoenician alphabet (also called the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet when found in the Levantine interior ) is an alphabet of abjad type, consisting of 22 consonant letters only, leaving vowel sounds implicit, although certain late varieties use matres lectionis for some vowels.
It is a regional variant of the Phoenician alphabet, a term used when referring to epigraphy found along the Levantine coast.

Northwest Semitic languages

Northwest SemiticNorthwest Semitic languageNorthwest Semitic group
In the Early Iron Age, the Phoenician alphabet is used to write Northwest Semitic languages, more specifically early Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew and Old Aramaic.
The Phoenician alphabet is of fundamental importance in human history as the source and ancestor of the Greek alphabet, the later Latin alphabet, the Aramaic (Square Hebrew), Syriac, and Arabic writing systems, Germanic runes, and ultimately Cyrillic.

Lebanon

LebaneseLebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon
Phoenician inscriptions have been found in archaeological sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the Mediterranean, such as Byblos (in present-day Lebanon) and Carthage in North Africa.
The Canaanite-Phoenicians are credited with the invention of the Phoenician alphabet.

Cadmus

KadmosCadmosCadmeans
According to Herodotus, the Phoenician prince Cadmus was accredited with the introduction of the Phoenician alphabet—phoinikeia grammata, "Phoenician letters"—to the Greeks, who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet.
undefined 484 – 425 BC, one of the first Greek historians, but one who also wove standard myths and legends through his work) with introducing the original Phoenician alphabet to the Greeks, who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet.

Aramaic alphabet

AramaicAramaic scriptImperial Aramaic
The Phoenician alphabet proper remained in use in Ancient Carthage until the 2nd century BC, while elsewhere it diversified into numerous national alphabets, including the Aramaic and Samaritan, several Anatolian scripts, and the early Greek alphabets.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet was adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became a distinct script by the 8th century BC.

Archaic Greek alphabets

Western Greek alphabetCumae variantCumaean
The Phoenician alphabet proper remained in use in Ancient Carthage until the 2nd century BC, while elsewhere it diversified into numerous national alphabets, including the Aramaic and Samaritan, several Anatolian scripts, and the early Greek alphabets.
All forms of the Greek alphabet were originally based on the shared inventory of the 22 symbols of the Phoenician alphabet, with the exception of the letter Samekh, whose Greek counterpart Xi was used only in a sub-group of Greek alphabets, and with the common addition of Upsilon for the vowel.

Temple of Eshmun

Eshmun TempleSanctuary of Eshmun tribunetemple for Eshmun
The sanctuary site has yielded many artifacts of value, especially those inscribed with Phoenician texts, providing valuable insight into the site's history and that of ancient Sidon.

Egyptian hieroglyphs

hieroglyphicshieroglyphichieroglyphs
in the Syro-Hittite kingdoms, is the oldest fully matured alphabet, ultimately derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs.
The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Sinaitic script that later evolved into the Phoenician alphabet.

Ahiram sarcophagus

AhiramAhiram epitaphAhiram sarcophagus inscription
The so-called Ahiram epitaph, whose dating is controversial, engraved on the sarcophagus of king Ahiram in Byblos, Lebanon, one of five known Byblian royal inscriptions, shows essentially the fully developed Phoenician script, although the name "Phoenician" is by convention given to inscriptions beginning in the mid-11th century BC.
One of five known Byblian royal inscriptions, the inscription is considered to be the earliest known example of the fully developed Phoenician alphabet.