Phonation

voicingvoice qualityphonatoryvoicephonatevoicelessphonatingplainSweet spotvoiced
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.wikipedia
265 Related Articles

Larynx

laryngealvoice boxlaryngologist
This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Phoneticians in other subfields, such as linguistic phonetics, call this process voicing, and use the term phonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is just one example.
The larynx houses the vocal folds, and manipulates pitch and volume, which is essential for phonation.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce intonation and tone.
In a number of East Asian languages, tonal differences are closely intertwined with phonation differences.

Voice (phonetics)

voiced voiced voicing
Phoneticians in other subfields, such as linguistic phonetics, call this process voicing, and use the term phonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is just one example.
(For a more detailed, technical explanation, see modal voice and phonation.) In most European languages, with a notable exception being Icelandic, vowels and other sonorants (consonants such as m, n, l, and r) are modally voiced.

Vocal cords

vocal foldsvocal cordvocal fold
Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration.
They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation.

Glottal stop

ʔGlottalglottal stops
If the arytenoids are pressed together for glottal closure, the vocal cords block the airstream, producing stop sounds such as the glottal stop.
* Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibration of the vocal cords; necessarily so, because the vocal cords are held tightly together, preventing vibration.

Creaky voice

creakylaryngealizedlaryngealization
For example, Gujarati has vowels with a partially lax phonation called breathy voice or murmured voice (transcribed in IPA with a subscript umlaut ), while Burmese has vowels with a partially tense phonation called creaky voice or laryngealized voice (transcribed in IPA with a subscript tilde ).
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.

Javanese language

JavaneseOld JavaneseJavanese word
Javanese does not have modal voice in its stops, but contrasts two other points along the phonation scale, with more moderate departures from modal voice, called slack voice and stiff voice.
The relevant distinction in phonation of the plosives is described as stiff voice versus slack voice.

Voicelessness

voicelessvoiceless consonantunvoiced
Phonologically, it is a type of phonation, which contrasts with other states of the larynx, but some object that the word phonation implies voicing and that voicelessness is the lack of phonation.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
The larynx, commonly known as the "voice box", is a cartilaginous structure in the trachea responsible for phonation.

Manner of articulation

articulationmanners of articulationspeech
Phonetically, they have no manner or place of articulation other than the state of the glottis: glottal closure for, breathy voice for, and open airstream for.
For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, as being independent parameters.

Mazatecan languages

MazatecMazatecoHuautla
The Jalapa dialect of Mazatec is unusual in contrasting both with modal voice in a three-way distinction.
Like many other Oto-Manguean languages, Mazatecan languages have complex phonologies characterized by complex tone systems and several uncommon phonation phenomena such as creaky voice, breathy voice and ballistic syllables.

Slack voice

Muddyslack/lax voiceD̥ d̥
Javanese does not have modal voice in its stops, but contrasts two other points along the phonation scale, with more moderate departures from modal voice, called slack voice and stiff voice.
In some Chinese varieties, such as Wu, and in a few Austronesian languages, the 'intermediate' phonation of slack stops confuses listeners of languages without these distinctions, so that different transcription systems may use or for the same consonant.

Glottal consonant

GlottalLaryngeallaryngeals
It has long been noted that in many languages, both phonologically and historically, the glottal consonants do not behave like other consonants.
They instead represent transitional states of the glottis (phonation) without a specific place of articulation, and may behave as approximants.

Burmese language

BurmeseMyanmarMyanmar language
For example, Gujarati has vowels with a partially lax phonation called breathy voice or murmured voice (transcribed in IPA with a subscript umlaut ), while Burmese has vowels with a partially tense phonation called creaky voice or laryngealized voice (transcribed in IPA with a subscript tilde ).
In Burmese, these contrasts involve not only pitch, but also phonation, intensity (loudness), duration, and vowel quality.

Stop consonant

PlosiveStopstops
Javanese does not have modal voice in its stops, but contrasts two other points along the phonation scale, with more moderate departures from modal voice, called slack voice and stiff voice. For the pairs of English stops, however, the distinction is better specified as voice onset time rather than simply voice: In initial position, /b d g/ are only partially voiced (voicing begins during the hold of the consonant), and /p t k/ are aspirated (voicing begins only well after its release).
Other such phonation types include breathy voice, or murmur; slack voice; and creaky voice.

Ingo Titze

Ingo R. TitzeProf Ingo Titze
The textbook entitled Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation by Ingo Titze credits Janwillem van den Berg as the originator of the theory and provides detailed mathematical development of the theory.

Dinka language

Dinkadin Dinka-speakers
The Bor dialect of Dinka has contrastive modal, breathy, faucalized, and harsh voice in its vowels, as well as three tones.
Voice quality is also a factor, with four different phonetic types present: modal voice, breathy voice, faucalized voice, and harsh voice in its vowels.

Laryngoscopy

laryngoscopeindirect laryngoscopyvideo laryngoscopes
Until the development of fiber-optic laryngoscopy, the full involvement of the larynx during speech production was not observable, and the interactions among the six laryngeal articulators is still poorly understood.
The patient can remain conscious during the procedure, so that the vocal folds can be observed during phonation.

Voice onset time

voice-onset timeaspiratedonset of voicing
For the pairs of English stops, however, the distinction is better specified as voice onset time rather than simply voice: In initial position, /b d g/ are only partially voiced (voicing begins during the hold of the consonant), and /p t k/ are aspirated (voicing begins only well after its release).
Three major phonation types of stops can be analyzed in terms of their voice onset time.

Modal voice

modal registermodalmodal voice register
The Jalapa dialect of Mazatec is unusual in contrasting both with modal voice in a three-way distinction. This is modal voice, and is the normal state for vowels and sonorants in all the world's languages. Four combinations of these elements are identified in speech pathology: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, and the whistle register.
It is also the term used in linguistics for the most common phonation of vowels.

Vocal fry register

vocal frycreakfry
Four combinations of these elements are identified in speech pathology: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, and the whistle register.
During this phonation, the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together, which causes the vocal folds to compress rather tightly and become relatively slack and compact.

Falsetto

falsetto registerfalsettistfalsettists
Four combinations of these elements are identified in speech pathology: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, and the whistle register.
Commonly cited in the context of singing, falsetto, a characteristic of phonation by both sexes, is also one of four main spoken vocal registers recognized by speech pathology.

Vocal range

rangevoice rangepitch
Vocal range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate.

Breathy voice

breathymurmuredbreathy voiced
For example, Gujarati has vowels with a partially lax phonation called breathy voice or murmured voice (transcribed in IPA with a subscript umlaut ), while Burmese has vowels with a partially tense phonation called creaky voice or laryngealized voice (transcribed in IPA with a subscript tilde ).
Breathy voice (also called murmured voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.