Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphoneticianphoneticiansphoneticalphoneticismphoneticistphonetistsoundIndian phonetics
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.

Speech

spokenspeakingoral
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Each language uses phonetic combinations of a limited set of perfectly articulated and individualized vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound different from all French words, even if they are the same word, e.g., "role" or "hotel"), and using those words in their semantic character as words in the lexicon of a language according to the syntactic constraints that govern lexical words' function in a sentence.

Articulatory phonetics

articulatoryarticulationarticulators
Articulatory phonetics: the study of the organs of speech and their use in producing speech sounds by the speaker.
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics.

Phone (phonetics)

phonesphonespeech sound
It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Acoustic phonetics

acousticacousticallyacoustic speech signal
Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener.
Acoustic phonetics is a subfield of phonetics, which deals with acoustic aspects of speech sounds.

Auditory phonetics

auditoryauditory representation
Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener. Auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: the perception, categorization, and recognition of speech sounds and the role of the auditory system and the brain in the same.
Auditory phonetics is a branch of phonetics concerned with the hearing of speech sounds and with speech perception.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.
Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics.

Bilabial consonant

BilabialLabialbilabial consonants
Bilabial consonants are made with both lips.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant articulated with both lips.

Labiodental consonant

LabiodentalLabio- dentallabio-dental
Labiodental consonants are made by the lower lip rising to the upper teeth.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.

Stop consonant

PlosiveStopstops
There is debate as to whether true labiodental plosives occur in any natural language, though a number of languages are reported to have labiodental plosives including Zulu, Tonga, and Shubi.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

Alexander Melville Bell

Bell's fatherBell, Alexander MelvilleMelville Bell
This early period of modern phonetics included the development of an influential phonetic alphabet based on articulatory positions by Alexander Melville Bell.
Alexander Melville Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and studied under and became the principal assistant of his father, Alexander Bell (1790–1865), an authority on phonetics and speech disorders.

Phonation

voicingvoice qualityvoice
The larynx, commonly known as the "voice box" is a cartilaginous structure in the trachea responsible for phonation.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.

Continuant

continuancecontinuitysemi mute
In languages with uvular consonants, stops are most frequent followed by continuants (including nasals).
In phonetics, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.

Speech perception

perceptionprocessinfant speech perception
Auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: the perception, categorization, and recognition of speech sounds and the role of the auditory system and the brain in the same.
The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonology and phonetics in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology.

Floyd Lounsbury

LounsburyFloyd G. LounsburyLounsbury, Floyd Glenn
The name "linguolabial" was suggested by Floyd Lounsbury given that they are produced with the blade rather than the tip of the tongue.
His linguistics work also had a bearing on his anthropological studies - he used his knowledge of semantic fields to relate kin type to phones in the field of phonetics.(Lounsbury 1956)

Distinctive feature

distinctive featuresfeaturesfeature
While it is widely agreed that phonology is grounded in phonetics, phonology is a distinct branch of linguistics, concerned with sounds and gestures as abstract units (e.g., distinctive features, phonemes, morae, syllables, etc.) and their conditioned variation (via, e.g., allophonic rules, constraints, or derivational rules).
These feature categories in turn are further specified on the basis of the phonetic properties of the segments in question.

Speech synthesis

text-to-speechspeech synthesizertext to speech
Speech synthesis: the production of human speech by a computer system.
Using this device, Alvin Liberman and colleagues discovered acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments (consonants and vowels).

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
While it is widely agreed that phonology is grounded in phonetics, phonology is a distinct branch of linguistics, concerned with sounds and gestures as abstract units (e.g., distinctive features, phonemes, morae, syllables, etc.) and their conditioned variation (via, e.g., allophonic rules, constraints, or derivational rules). Other positions of the glottis, such as breathy and creaky voice, are used in a number of languages, like Jalapa Mazatec, to contrast phonemes while in other languages, like English, they exist allophonically.
In this way, phonemes are often considered to constitute an abstract underlying representation for segments of words, while speech sounds make up the corresponding phonetic realization, or surface form.

Sociophonetics

socio-phonetics
As part of this investigation, phoneticians may concern themselves with the physical properties of meaningful sound contrasts or the social meaning encoded in the speech signal (socio-phonetics) (e.g. gender, sexuality, ethnicity, etc.).
Sociophonetics is a branch of linguistics that broadly combines the methods of sociolinguistics and phonetics.

X-SAMPA

X-SAMPA
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, ) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.

Experimental phonetics

Experimental phonetics
Experimental phonetics is the branch of general phonetics that deals with the study of the sounds and other human speech units by applying the experimental method.

Peter Roach (phonetician)

Peter Roach
"A Little Encyclopedia of Phonetics" by Peter Roach.
Peter John Roach (born 30 June 1943) is a British retired phonetician.

SaypU

SaypU (Spell As You Pronounce Universally)
SaypU or SaypYu is an acronym for "Spell As You Pronounce Universally" (in SaypU Spel az Yu Prɘnawns Yunivɘɘrsɘlli) is an approximative phonetic alphabet of 24 alphabet letters to spell languages, including English.

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationdiacritic
The most widely known system of phonetic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), provides a standardized set of symbols for oral phones.
Diacritic marks can be combined with IPA letters to transcribe modified phonetic values or secondary articulations.