Phonics

phonicdecodingphoneme-grapheme mappingphoneticallyPhonic Blend Systems Limitedphonics reading methodspelling patterns
Note: This article uses Standard American English pronunciation.wikipedia
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Whole language

whole-languageinvented spellingreading
Since it focuses on the spoken and written units within words, phonics is a sublexical approach and, as a result, is often contrasted with whole language, a word-level-up philosophy for teaching reading.
This is also reflects a fundamental element of the concern voiced by many educators over the use of pure phonics and the positivist view that you can accurately measure the development of reading sub-skills.

Reading

readReading (process)reader
Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.
Sub-lexical reading, involves teaching reading by associating characters or groups of characters with sounds or by using phonics or synthetic phonics learning and teaching methodology, which some argue is in competition with whole language methods.

Learning to read

early readerlearn to readreading acquisition
Both the lexical and the sub-lexical cognitive processes contribute to how we learn to read.
For the English language, there are two major methods, Phonics and Whole Language, within which there are subtypes Synthetic Phonics and Sight word respectively.

Phonemic awareness

connecting the sounds of language to lettersphonetic awareness
Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.
Phonemic awareness is the basis for learning phonics.

Dick and Jane

Dick, Jane
This led to the commonly used "look-say" approach ensconced in the Dick and Jane readers popular in the mid-20th century.
The predecessors to the Dick and Jane primers were the phonics-based McGuffey Readers, which were popular from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, and the Elson Basic Readers.

Analytical phonics

analyticalimplicit
Analytical phonics has children analyze sound-symbol correspondences, such as the ou spelling of in shrouds but students do not blend those elements as they do in synthetic phonics lessons.
Phonics has become an acceptable practice and approach to teaching children to read.

Alphabetic principle

English spelling is based on the alphabetic principle.
Proponents of phonics argue that this relationship needs to be taught explicitly and to be learned to automaticity, in order to facilitate the rapid word recognition upon which comprehension depends.

Rudolf Flesch

Why Johnny Can't ReadFlesch, RudolfRudolf F. Flesch
Beginning in the 1950s, however, inspired by a landmark study by Dr. Harry E. Houtz, and spurred by Rudolf Flesch's criticism of the absence of phonics instruction (particularly in his popular book, Why Johnny Can't Read) phonics resurfaced as a method of teaching reading.
Flesch advocated use of phonics rather than sight reading to enable students to sound-out unfamiliar words.

Sight word

look-sayinitial sight vocabularyLook say
This led to the commonly used "look-say" approach ensconced in the Dick and Jane readers popular in the mid-20th century.

Dolch word list

Dolch 220Dolch sight words
Although most of the 220 Dolch words are phonetic, children are sometimes told that they can't be "sounded out" using common sound-to-letter implicit phonics patterns and have to be learned by sight; hence the alternative term, "sight word".

Favell Lee Mortimer

Favell Lee Bevan
The use of phonics in American education dates at least to the work of Favell Lee Mortimer, whose works using phonics includes the early flashcard set Reading Disentangled (1834) and text Reading Without Tears (1857).
She developed her own method of teaching children to read based on an early kind of 'flash cards' rather than the traditional hornbook, with her Reading Disentangled (1834), a set of phonics flashcards, being credited by some as the first flashcards.

National Reading Panel

United States National Reading Panel
Adams and the National Reading Panel advocate for a comprehensive reading programme that includes several different sub-skills, based on scientific research.
The report summarized research in eight areas relating to literacy instruction: phonemic awareness instruction, phonics instruction, fluency instruction, vocabulary instruction, text comprehension instruction, independent reading, computer assisted instruction, and teacher professional development.

Synthetic phonics

systematic phonicSystematic Phonics
Synthetic phonics is a method of teaching reading in the education systems of England and Australia.
Synthetic phonics teaches the phonemes (sounds) associated with the graphemes (letters) at the rate of about six sounds per week.

Marilyn Jager Adams

Dr. Marilyn J. Adams
As part of this requirement, the ED asked Dr. Marilyn J. Adams to produce a report on the role of phonics instruction in beginning reading, which resulted in her 1994 book Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print.
Adams was the Principal Scientist of Phonics Instruction of Scholastic Inc.’s phonics intervention and foundational reading program “System 44”; which combines research-based phonics instruction with adaptive technology.

Flashcard

flashcardsflash cardFlash Cards
The use of phonics in American education dates at least to the work of Favell Lee Mortimer, whose works using phonics includes the early flashcard set Reading Disentangled (1834) and text Reading Without Tears (1857).
Paper flashcards have been used since at least the 19th century, with Reading Disentangled (1834), a set of phonics flashcards by English educator Favell Lee Mortimer being credited by some as the first flashcards.

Kate Harrington (poet)

Kate HarringtonRebecca Smith Pollard
Despite the work of 19th-century proponents such as Rebecca Smith Pollard, some American educators, prominently Horace Mann, argued that phonics should not be taught at all.
Pollard's work in the field of reading represented a pioneer effort in terms of creating a sequential reading program of intensive synthetic phonics, complete with a separate teacher's manual and spelling and reading books, and moving into a broad based graded series of literature readers.

Balanced literacy

Balanced Literacy'' approach
Direct Instruction in phonics and Word Study are also included in the balanced literacy Approach.

Decodable text

Therefore, with this type of text new readers can decipher words using the phonics skills they have been taught.

Initial Teaching Alphabet

Though the I.T.A. was not originally intended to dictate one particular approach to teaching reading, it was often identified with phonics methods, and after the 1960s, the pendulum of educational theory swung away from phonics.

Allography

Writing

writtentextwrite
Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.

Grapheme

graphemescharacterscharacter
Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.

English orthography

English spellingspellingb'''ir'''d
English spelling is based on the alphabetic principle.