Phonograph

turntablesgramophoneturntablerecord playergramophonesphonographstonearmrecord playersEdison phonographrecord turntable
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.wikipedia
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Graphophone

American Graphophone CompanyBerliner Gram-O-PhoneEdison's advanced commercial version
Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record.
The Graphophone was the name and trademark of an improved version of the phonograph.

Phonograph cylinder

wax cylinderwax cylinderscylinder
In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages.
1896–1915), these hollow cylindrical objects have an audio recording engraved on the outside surface, which can be reproduced when they are played on a mechanical cylinder phonograph.

Phonograph record

vinyl7LP
In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages. In its later forms, it is also called a gramophone (as a trademark since 1887, as a generic name in the UK since 1910) or, since the 1940s, a record player. The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". After the introduction of the softer vinyl records, 33 1⁄3-rpm LPs (long-playing records) and 45-rpm "single" or two-song records, and EPs (extended-play recordings), the common name became "record player" or "turntable".
Phonograph records are generally described by their diameter in inches (12-inch, 10-inch, 7-inch), the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) at which they are played (8 1⁄3, 16 2⁄3, 33 1⁄3, 45, 78), and their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed (LP [long playing], 12-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 rpm; SP [single], 10-inch disc, 78 rpm, or 7-inch disc, 45 rpm; EP [extended play], 12-inch disc or 7-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 or 45 rpm); their reproductive quality, or level of fidelity (high-fidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.); and the number of audio channels (mono, stereo, quad, etc.).

Disc jockey

DJDJsdeejay
However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles, DJs and turntablists (particularly in hip hop and electronic dance music), and have undergone a revival in the 2010s. When used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are often colloquially called "decks".
Most common types of DJs include radio DJs, club DJs, who perform at a nightclub or music festival and turntablists who uses record players, usually turntables, to manipulate sounds on phonograph records.

Audiophile

audiophilesAudiophiliaaudio enthusiast
However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles, DJs and turntablists (particularly in hip hop and electronic dance music), and have undergone a revival in the 2010s.
High-end components include turntables, digital-to-analog converters, equalization devices, preamplifiers and amplifiers (both solid-state and vacuum tube), horn and electrostatic speakers, power conditioners, subwoofers, headphones, and acoustic room treatment in addition to room correction devices.

Magnetic cartridge

moving coilneedlephono cartridge
Later improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, and the sound and equalization systems.
A magnetic cartridge, more commonly called a phonograph cartridge or phono cartridge or (colloquially) a pickup, is an electromechanical transducer that is used to play records on a turntable.

DJ mixer

mixermixersdisco mixer
When used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are often colloquially called "decks".
Hip hop DJs and turntablists use the DJ mixer to play record players like a musical instrument and create new sounds.

Sound recording and reproduction

recordingrecordedrecordings
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record).

Emile Berliner

Emil BerlinerBerlinerBerliner, Emile
In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages.
After some time working in a livery stable, he became interested in the new audio technology of the telephone and phonograph, and invented an improved telephone transmitter (one of the first type of microphones).

Victor Talking Machine Company

VictorVictor RecordsVictrola
By the time of the First World War, the mass advertising and popularity of the Victrola (a line of disc-playing machines characterized by their concealed horns) sold by the Victor Talking Machine Company was leading to widespread generic use of the word "victrola" for any machine that played discs, which were generally called "phonograph records" or simply "records", but almost never "Victrola records".
The Victor Talking Machine Company was an American record company and phonograph manufacturer headquartered in Camden, New Jersey.

Grammy Award

GrammyGrammy AwardsGrammys
Gramophone, as a brand name, was not used in the United States after 1902, and the word quickly fell out of use there, although it has survived in its nickname form, Grammy, as the name of the Grammy Awards.
The trophy depicts a gilded gramophone.

Horn loudspeaker

hornhornshorn-loaded
In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones.
The most well known early horn loudspeakers were those on mechanical phonographs, where the record moved a heavy metal needle that excited vibrations in a small metal diaphragm that acted as the driver for a horn.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva EdisonEdisonThomas A. Edison
The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.
These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world.

Radiogram (device)

radiogramradiograms(''radiogram'')
Often the home record player was part of a system that included a radio (radiogram) and, later, might also play audiotape cassettes.
In British English, a radiogram is a piece of furniture that combined a radio and record player.

Single (music)

singlesingles7" single
After the introduction of the softer vinyl records, 33 1⁄3-rpm LPs (long-playing records) and 45-rpm "single" or two-song records, and EPs (extended-play recordings), the common name became "record player" or "turntable".
The relatively crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, and a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.

Audio power amplifier

power amplifieraudio amplifieramplifier
Portable record players (no radio included), with a latched cover and an integrated power amplifier and loudspeaker, were becoming popular as well, especially in schools and for use by children and teenagers.
The preceding stages in such a chain are low power audio amplifiers which perform tasks like pre-amplification of the signal (this is particularly associated with record turntable signals, microphone signals and electric instrument signals from pickups, such as the electric guitar and electric bass), equalization (e.g., adjusting the bass and treble), tone controls, mixing different input signals or adding electronic effects such as reverb.

Monaural

MonomonophonicMonoaural
From about 1960, such a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" (high-fidelity, monophonic) or a "stereo" (most systems being stereophonic by the mid-1960s).
While some experiments were made with stereophonic recording and reproduction from the early days of the phonograph in the late-19th century, monaural was the rule for almost all audio recording until the second half of the 20th century.

Record changer

auto-coupledautochangerrecord changers
In more modern usage, the playback device is often called a "turntable", "record player", or "record changer", although each of these terms denote categorically distinct items.
On a conventional gramophone or phonograph, the limited playing time of 78 rpm gramophone records (averaging a little over four minutes per 12-inch side, and a little over three per 10-inch side) meant that listeners had to get up to change records at regular intervals.

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellAlexander Bell
Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record.
These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.

Pathé

Pathé ExchangePathé FrèresPathé Distribution
The phenomenon of phonograph parlors peaked in Paris around 1900: in Pathé's luxurious salon, patrons sat in plush upholstered chairs and chose from among many hundreds of available cylinders by using speaking tubes to communicate with attendants on the floor below.
The driving force behind the film operation and phonograph business was Charles Pathé, who had helped open a phonograph shop in 1894 and established a phonograph factory at Chatou on the western outskirts of Paris.

Charles Cros

The phonograph's predecessors include Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville's phonautograph, and Charles Cros's paleophone.
As an inventor, he was interested in the fields of transmitting graphics by telegraph and making photographs in color, but he is perhaps best known for being the first person to conceive a method for reproducing recorded sound, an invention he named the Paleophone.

George W. Johnson (singer)

George W. JohnsonGeorge Washington Johnson
Reportedly, the medium's first major African-American star George Washington Johnson was obliged to perform his "The Laughing Song" (or the separate "The Whistling Coon") literally thousands of times in a studio during his recording career.
October 1846 – January 23, 1914) was a singer and pioneer sound recording artist, the first African-American recording star of the phonograph.

Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville

Edouard-Leon Scott de MartinvilleLeon ScottEdouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
The phonograph's predecessors include Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville's phonautograph, and Charles Cros's paleophone.
Unlike Thomas Edison's later invention of 1877, the phonograph, the phonautograph created only visual images of the sound and did not have the ability to play back its recordings.

Chichester Bell

Chester BellChichester A. Bell
Edison's patent specified that the audio recording be embossed, and it was not until 1886 that vertically modulated incised recording using wax-coated cylinders was patented by Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter.
Chichester Alexander Bell (1848–1924) was a chemist, first cousin of Alexander Graham Bell, and instrumental in developing improved versions of the phonograph.

Audiobook

audiobooksaudio bookaudio books
Edison's 1877 tinfoil recording of Mary Had a Little Lamb, not preserved, has been called the first instance of recorded verse.
Spoken word recordings first became possible with the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877.