Phonograph record

vinyl7LPvinyl record7" single7" vinylrecordgramophone recordrecords12
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English), often simply record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.wikipedia
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Spiral

spiralsspherical spiralwhorl
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English), often simply record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
The first definition describes a planar curve, that extends in both of the perpendicular directions within its plane; the groove on one side of a record closely approximates a plane spiral (and it is by the finite width and depth of the groove, but not by the wider spacing between than within tracks, that it falls short of being a perfect example); note that successive loops differ in diameter.

Polyvinyl chloride

PVCvinylpolyvinylchloride
At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac; starting in the 1940s polyvinyl chloride became common.
In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, flooring, signage, phonograph records, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber.

Acetate disc

acetateacetatesacetate discs
Only two producers of lacquers (acetate discs) remain: Apollo Masters in California, and MDC in Japan.
An acetate disc is a type of phonograph (gramophone) record, a mechanical sound storage medium, widely used from the 1930s to the late 1950s for recording and broadcast purposes and still in limited use today.

Phonograph cylinder

wax cylinderwax cylinderscylinder
It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had effectively superseded it by around 1912.
In the 1910s, the competing disc record system triumphed in the marketplace to become the dominant commercial audio medium.

Shellac

E904lacShell
At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac; starting in the 1940s polyvinyl chloride became common.
Phonograph and 78 rpm gramophone records were made of it until they were replaced by vinyl long-playing records from the 1950s onwards.

Emile Berliner

Emil BerlinerBerlinerBerliner, Emile
Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone". As early as 1894, Emile Berliner's United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7-inch discs with an advertised standard speed of "about 70 rpm".
He is best known for inventing the flat disc record (called a "gramophone record" in British and American English) and the Gramophone.

Data storage

data storage devicestoragestorage media
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English), often simply record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
DNA and RNA, handwriting, phonographic recording, magnetic tape, and optical discs are all examples of storage media.

Monaural

MonomonophonicMonoaural
Phonograph records are generally described by their diameter in inches (12-inch, 10-inch, 7-inch), the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) at which they are played (8 1⁄3, 16 2⁄3, 33 1⁄3, 45, 78), and their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed (LP [long playing], 12-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 rpm; SP [single], 10-inch disc, 78 rpm, or 7-inch disc, 45 rpm; EP [extended play], 12-inch disc or 7-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 or 45 rpm); their reproductive quality, or level of fidelity (high-fidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.); and the number of audio channels (mono, stereo, quad, etc.).
In the mastering stage, particularly in the days of mono records, the one- or two-track mono master tape was then transferred to a one-track lathe intended to be used in the pressing of a monophonic record.

Digital audio

digital musicdigitalaudio
By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991.
Before digital audio, the music industry distributed and sold music by selling physical copies in the form of records and cassette tapes.

Format war

achieved dominancebattle of formatsdispute
Despite these improvements, during the 1910s discs decisively won this early format war, although Edison continued to produce new Blue Amberol cylinders for an ever-dwindling customer base until late in 1929.
*Early recording media formats: cylinder records versus disc records.

Camden, New Jersey

CamdenCamden, NJCity of Camden
Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" trademark for legal reasons, in 1901 Johnson's and Berliner's separate companies reorganized to form the Victor Talking Machine Company in Camden, New Jersey, whose products would come to dominate the market for many years.
From 1901 through 1929, Camden was headquarters of the Victor Talking Machine Company, and thereafter to its successor RCA Victor, the world's largest manufacturer of phonographs and phonograph records for the first two-thirds of the 20th century.

Revolutions per minute

rpmr.p.m.RPMs
Phonograph records are generally described by their diameter in inches (12-inch, 10-inch, 7-inch), the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) at which they are played (8 1⁄3, 16 2⁄3, 33 1⁄3, 45, 78), and their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed (LP [long playing], 12-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 rpm; SP [single], 10-inch disc, 78 rpm, or 7-inch disc, 45 rpm; EP [extended play], 12-inch disc or 7-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 or 45 rpm); their reproductive quality, or level of fidelity (high-fidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.); and the number of audio channels (mono, stereo, quad, etc.).

RCA Records

RCARCA VictorRCA Victor Records
The factory, which became the Canadian branch of RCA Victor still exists.
In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company, then the world's largest manufacturer of phonographs (including the famous "Victrola") and phonograph records (in British English, "gramophone records").

Victor Orthophonic Victrola

OrthophonicOrthophonic VictrolaOrthophonic Victrolas
In 1925, the Victor company introduced both the Orthophonic Victrola, an acoustical record player that was designed to play electrically recorded discs, and the electrically amplified Electrola.
The Victor Orthophonic Victrola, first demonstrated publicly in 1925, was the first consumer phonograph designed specifically to play electrically recorded phonograph records.

Gennett Records

GennettStarr Piano CompanyGennett 9000 Series
Lillian Hardin Armstrong, a member of King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, which recorded at Gennett Records in 1923, remembered that at first Oliver and his young second trumpet, Louis Armstrong, stood next to each other and Oliver's horn could not be heard.
The early issues were vertically cut in the gramophone record grooves, using the hill-and-dale method of a U-shaped groove and sapphire ball stylus, but they switched to the more popular lateral cut method in April 1919.

Eldridge R. Johnson

Eldridge JohnsonEldridge Reeves JohnsonEldridge Reeves Johnson Foundation for Medical Physics
Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson eventually improved it.
Eldridge Reeves Johnson (February 6, 1867 in Wilmington, Delaware – November 14, 1945 in Moorestown, New Jersey ) was an American businessman and engineer who founded the Victor Talking Machine Company and built it into the leading American producer of phonographs and phonograph records and one of the leading phonograph companies in the world at the time.

Vitaphone

The Vitaphone CorporationThe Vitaphone Corp.Vitaphone Orchestra
One was a 16-inch, 33 1⁄3 rpm record used by the Vitaphone sound-on-disc movie system.
The soundtrack was not printed on the film itself, but issued separately on phonograph records.

Gramophone Company

The Gramophone CompanyGramophone & Typewriter CompanyGramophone and Typewriter Company
As early as 1894, Emile Berliner's United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7-inch discs with an advertised standard speed of "about 70 rpm".
Owen was acting as agent for Emile Berliner, inventor of the gramophone record, whilst Williams provided the finances.

Brunswick Records

BrunswickBrunswick Record CompanyBrunswick Panatrope
Victor, Brunswick and Columbia also issued 12-inch popular medleys, usually spotlighting a Broadway show score.
In January 1920, a new line of Brunswick Records was introduced in the U.S. and Canada that employed the lateral cut system which was becoming the default cut for 78 discs.

Decca Records

DeccaDecca ClassicsDecca Record Company
Later, Decca Records introduced vinyl Deccalite 78s, while other record companies used vinyl formulations trademarked as Metrolite, Merco Plastic, and Sav-o-flex, but these were mainly used to produce "unbreakable" children's records and special thin vinyl DJ pressings for shipment to radio stations.
Decca's emergence as a major classical label may be attributed to three concurrent events: the emphasis on technical innovation (first the development of the full frequency range recording [ffrr] technique, then the early use of stereo recording), the introduction of the long-playing record, and the recruitment of John Culshaw to Decca's London office.

Compact disc

CDCDsCD single
By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991.
The CD was planned to be the successor of the vinyl record for playing music, rather than primarily as a data storage medium.

Stereophonic sound

StereoStereophonicstereo sound
Phonograph records are generally described by their diameter in inches (12-inch, 10-inch, 7-inch), the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) at which they are played (8 1⁄3, 16 2⁄3, 33 1⁄3, 45, 78), and their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed (LP [long playing], 12-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 rpm; SP [single], 10-inch disc, 78 rpm, or 7-inch disc, 45 rpm; EP [extended play], 12-inch disc or 7-inch disc, 33 1⁄3 or 45 rpm); their reproductive quality, or level of fidelity (high-fidelity, orthophonic, full-range, etc.); and the number of audio channels (mono, stereo, quad, etc.).
These were manufactured on twin film-company recording lathes which ran in perfect sync with one another with no variation, and were capable of not only outside-in as well as inside-out recordings (see Radio Programming Vinyl Sequence under Gramophone record) but also counter-clockwise as well as conventional clockwise recording by mounting the cutting head wrong-way-out with a special adapter.

Album

studio albumlive albumtribute album
By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records (the term "record album" was printed on some covers).
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc (CD), vinyl, audio tape, or another medium.

Carmen

Don JoséEscamilloMicaela
However, the previous year Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen.
The opera has been recorded many times since the first acoustical recording in 1908, and the story has been the subject of many screen and stage adaptations.

Graphophone

American Graphophone CompanyBerliner Gram-O-PhoneEdison's advanced commercial version
Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
While cylinder phonographs never employed the lateral cutting process commercially, this later became the primary method of phonograph disc recording.