Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologistphonemicsphonemicphonological theorysound systemphonologistsphoneticphonologic
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages.
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).

Syllable

codaonsetsyllable coda
It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning.
Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words.

Mora (linguistics)

moramoraemoras
It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

English phonology

EnglishEnglish phoneticsEnglish pronunciation
The word 'phonology' (as in the phonology of English) can also refer to the phonological system (sound system) of a given language.
In general, however, the regional dialects of English share a largely similar (but not identical) phonological system.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics.
Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs and how they pattern in and across languages.

Speech perception

perceptionprocessacoustic landmarks and distinctive features
Some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology.
The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonology and phonetics in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology.

Laboratory phonology

experimental phonology
Some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology.
Laboratory phonology is an approach to phonology that emphasizes the synergy between phonological theory and scientific experiments, including laboratory studies of human speech and experiments on the acquisition and productivity of phonological patterns.

Vocabulary

vocabularieslexicalactive vocabulary
This is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax, its morphology and its vocabulary.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning.
Oral, manual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
This is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax, its morphology and its vocabulary.
Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills.

Psycholinguistics

psycholinguisticpsycholinguistpsychology of language
Some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology.
A researcher interested in language comprehension may study word recognition during reading to examine the processes involved in the extraction of orthographic, morphological, phonological, and semantic information from patterns in printed text.

Linguistic description

descriptivedescriptive linguisticslinguistic analysis
It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning. For many linguists, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics, and phonology to theoretical linguistics, although establishing the phonological system of a language is necessarily an application of theoretical principles to analysis of phonetic evidence.
Phonology (and its theoretical developments, such as the phoneme) deals with the function and interpretation of sound in language.

Morphophonology

morphophonemicmorphophonologicalmorphophonemics
He also worked on the theory of phonetic alternations (what is now called allophony and morphophonology), and may have had an influence on the work of Saussure according to E. F. K. Koerner.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

Roman Jakobson

JakobsonRoman JacobsonJakobson, Roman Osipovich
Another important figure in the Prague school was Roman Jakobson, who was one of the most prominent linguists of the 20th century.
With Nikolai Trubetzkoy, he developed revolutionary new techniques for the analysis of linguistic sound systems, in effect founding the modern discipline of phonology.

Theoretical linguistics

general linguisticstheoreticallinguistic theory
For many linguists, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics, and phonology to theoretical linguistics, although establishing the phonological system of a language is necessarily an application of theoretical principles to analysis of phonetic evidence.
That is one obvious difference from phonology, which concerns the structure and organisation of speech sounds in natural languages has a theoretical and abstract nature.

The Sound Pattern of English

Chomskylinear phonologySound pattern of English
In 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English (SPE), the basis for generative phonology.
The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a 1968 work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle.

Lev Shcherba

Lev Vladimirovich Shcherba
The study of phonology as it exists today is defined by the formative studies of the 19th-century Polish scholar Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, who (together with his students Mikołaj Kruszewski and Lev Shcherba) shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme in a series of lectures in 1876-1877.
Lev Shcherba (commonly Scherba) (Russian: Лев Влади́мирович Ще́рба, Belarusian: Леў Уладзіміравіч Шчэрба) (March 3 1880 – December 26, 1944) was a Russian linguist and lexicographer specializing in phonetics and phonology.

Distinctive feature

distinctive featuresfeaturefeatures
In this view, phonological representations are sequences of segments made up of distinctive features.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.

Underlying representation

underlyingunderlying formsurface form
There are at least two levels of representation: underlying representation and surface phonetic representation.
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.

Segment (linguistics)

segmentsegmentssegmental
In this view, phonological representations are sequences of segments made up of distinctive features.
The term is most used in phonetics and phonology to refer to the smallest elements in a language, and this usage can be synonymous with the term phone.

Generative grammar

generative linguisticsgenerativegenerative phonology
In 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English (SPE), the basis for generative phonology.
The generative school has focused on the study of syntax and addressed other aspects of a language's structure, including morphology and phonology.

Ferdinand de Saussure

SaussureSaussurianSaussurean
Nikolai Trubetzkoy in Grundzüge der Phonologie (1939) defines phonology as "the study of sound pertaining to the system of language," as opposed to phonetics, which is "the study of sound pertaining to the act of speech" (the distinction between language and speech being basically Saussure's distinction between langue and parole).
Most notably, Nikolay Trubetzkoy and Roman Jakobson headed the efforts of the Prague School in setting the course of phonological theory in the decades from 1940.

Morris Halle

HalleHalle, MorrisMoriss Halle
In 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English (SPE), the basis for generative phonology.
The father of "modern phonology", he was best known for his pioneering work in generative phonology, having written "On Accent and Juncture in English" in 1956 with Noam Chomsky and Fred Lukoff and The Sound Pattern of English in 1968 with Chomsky.

Articulatory phonology

Some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology.
The theory identifies theoretical discrepancies between phonetics and phonology and aims to unify the two by treating them as low- and high-dimensional descriptions of a single system.

Feature geometry

Autosegmental phonology later evolved into feature geometry, which became the standard theory of representation for theories of the organization of phonology as different as lexical phonology and optimality theory.
Feature geometry is a phonological theory which represents distinctive features as a structured hierarchy rather than a matrix or a set.