Phosphate

phosphatesphosphate groupinorganic phosphatephosphaticphosphate minephosphate miningPO 4 dihydrogen phosphatehydrogen phosphateP i
A Phosphate is a chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.wikipedia
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Phosphoric acids and phosphates

polyphosphoric acidmetaphosphoric acidorthophosphate
Of the various phosphoric acids and phosphates, organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry (and, consequently, in ecology), and inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry.
Each of these can form phosphates (salts or esters of phosphoric acids).

Phosphorus

PP 4 phosphoric
Of the various phosphoric acids and phosphates, organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry (and, consequently, in ecology), and inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry. Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals. It consists of one central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.
Phosphates (compounds containing the phosphate ion, PO 4 3− ) are a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and phospholipids.

Phosphoric acid

phosphoricH 3 PO 4 orthophosphoric acid
A Phosphate is a chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
The conjugate base of phosphoric acid is the dihydrogen phosphate ion, which in turn has a conjugate base of hydrogen phosphate,, which has a conjugate base of phosphate,.

Dephosphorylation

dephosphorylateddephosphorylatedephosphorylates
Referred to as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively, they are important ways that energy is stored and released in living systems.
Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO 4 3− ) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis.

Pyrophosphate

diphosphatePPiPP i
At elevated temperatures in the solid state, phosphates can condense to form pyrophosphates.
The term pyrophosphate is also the name of esters formed by the condensation of a phosphorylated biological compound with inorganic phosphate, as for dimethylallyl pyrophosphate.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
In biology, adding phosphates to—and removing them from—proteins in cells are both pivotal in the regulation of metabolic processes.
Several variations on this basic structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids, and hydrophilic groups such as phosphate as in phospholipids.

Adenosine monophosphate

AMPadenylyladenylate
However, phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates (AMP, ADP, and ATP) and in DNA and RNA.
AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine; it is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates.
Nucleotides are molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate group.

Caesium

cesiumCsCs +
The phosphate, acetate, carbonate, halides, oxide, nitrate, and sulfate salts are water-soluble.

Nucleoside triphosphate

dNTPnucleotide triphosphateNTP
Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.

Adenosine diphosphate

ADPadenosine diphosphate (ADP)adenosine diphosphate sugars
However, phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates (AMP, ADP, and ATP) and in DNA and RNA.
ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to the 5 carbon atom of ribose.

Phosphate minerals

phosphate mineralphosphatesphosphate
Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals.
Phosphate minerals contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO 4 3− ) anion along sometimes with arsenate (AsO 4 3− ) and vanadate (VO 4 3− ) substitutions.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
It consists of one central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.
Water polluted with plant nutrients such as nitrates or phosphates may stimulate growth of algae by a process called eutrophication and the decay of these organisms and other biomaterials may reduce the content in eutrophic water bodies.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
However, phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates (AMP, ADP, and ATP) and in DNA and RNA.
The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating phosphate and sugar residues.

Calcium phosphate

calcium phosphatesCa 3 (PO 4 ) 2 E341
These structures are made of crystalline calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite.
Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) together with inorganic phosphate anions.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
The phosphate ion is an inorganic chemical, the conjugate base that can form many different salts.

Ammonium phosphate

ammonium phosphatesE342S
Ammonium phosphate is the salt of ammonium and phosphate.

Conjugate acid

conjugate baseconjugateconjugate bases
The phosphate ion is an inorganic chemical, the conjugate base that can form many different salts.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
However, phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates (AMP, ADP, and ATP) and in DNA and RNA.
A phosphate group is attached to the 3' position of one ribose and the 5' position of the next.

Bone Valley

area phosphate
Within North America, the largest deposits lie in the Bone Valley region of central Florida, the Soda Springs region of southeastern Idaho, and the coast of North Carolina.
The Bone Valley is a region of central Florida, encompassing portions of present-day Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk counties, in which phosphate is mined for use in the production of agricultural fertilizer.

Polyatomic ion

molecular ionpolyatomicpolyatomic anion
The phosphate ion is a polyatomic ion with the empirical formula and a molar mass of 94.97 g/mol.

Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
Of the various phosphoric acids and phosphates, organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry (and, consequently, in ecology), and inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry.
The monomers are called nucleotides, and each consists of three components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (either a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.

Phosphate mining in Nauru

phosphate miningespecially on NauruNauru
The small island nation of Nauru and its neighbor Banaba Island, which used to have massive phosphate deposits of the best quality, have been mined excessively.
The economy of Nauru has been almost wholly dependent on phosphate, which has led to environmental catastrophe on the island, with 80% of the nation's surface having been strip-mined.

Cominco Resources

In December 2012, Cominco Resources announced an updated JORC compliant resource of their Hinda project in Congo-Brazzaville of 531 Mt, making it the largest measured and indicated phosphate deposit in the world.
Cominco Resources is a private company which is developing the US$2billion Hinda phosphate project located in The Republic of the Congo.

Banaba Island

Ocean IslandBanabaBanaban Islanders
The small island nation of Nauru and its neighbor Banaba Island, which used to have massive phosphate deposits of the best quality, have been mined excessively.
Along with Nauru and Makatea (French Polynesia), it is one of the important elevated phosphate-rich islands of the Pacific.