Phosphoric acid speciation
White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark
Phosphate mine near Flaming Gorge, Utah, US, 2008
The tetrahedral structure of P4O10 and P4S10.
Train loaded with phosphate rock, Métlaoui, Tunisia, 2012
A stable diphosphene, a derivative of phosphorus(I).
Sea surface phosphate from the World Ocean Atlas
Robert Boyle
Relationship of phosphate to nitrate uptake for photosynthesis in various regions of the ocean. Note that nitrate is more often limiting than phosphate. See the Redfield ratio.
Guano mining in the Central Chincha Islands, ca. 1860.
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Mining of phosphate rock in Nauru
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Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. The glass powder is used to increase the friction.
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Phosphorus explosion
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Phosphorus is an element essential to sustaining life largely through phosphates, compounds containing the phosphate ion, PO43−.

- Phosphorus

The phosphate ion has a molar mass of 94.97 g/mol, and consists of a central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.

- Phosphate
Phosphoric acid speciation

5 related topics

Alpha

A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility

Fertilizer

Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients.

Any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply plant nutrients.

A farmer spreading manure to improve soil fertility
World population supported with and without synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.
Founded in 1812, Mirat, producer of manures and fertilizers, is claimed to be the oldest industrial business in Salamanca (Spain).
Six tomato plants grown with and without nitrate fertilizer on nutrient-poor sand/clay soil. One of the plants in the nutrient-poor soil has died.
Inorganic fertilizer use by region
Total nitrogenous fertilizer consumption per region, measured in tonnes of total nutrient per year.
An apatite mine in Siilinjärvi, Finland.
Compost bin for small-scale production of organic fertilizer
A large commercial compost operation
Applying superphosphate fertilizer by hand, New Zealand, 1938
Fertilizer burn
N-Butylthiophosphoryltriamide, an enhanced efficiency fertilizer.
Fertilizer use (2018). From FAO's World Food and Agriculture – Statistical Yearbook 2020
The diagram displays the statistics of fertilizer consumption in western and central European counties from data published by The World Bank for 2012.
Runoff of soil and fertilizer during a rain storm
Large pile of phosphogypsum waste near Fort Meade, Florida.
Red circles show the location and size of many dead zones.
Global methane concentrations (surface and atmospheric) for 2005; note distinct plumes

For most modern agricultural practices, fertilization focuses on three main macro nutrients: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K) with occasional addition of supplements like rock dust for micronutrients.

A maize crop yielding 6–9 tonnes of grain per hectare (1 ha) requires 31 – of phosphate fertilizer to be applied; soybean crops require about half, as 20–25 kg per hectare.

Pyrophosphoric acid.

Phosphoric acids and phosphates

Pyrophosphoric acid.
Pyrophosphate anion.
Trimethyl orthophosphate.
Polyphosphoric acid
Trimetaphosphoric acid H{{sub|3}}P{{sub|3}}O{{sub|9}}
General chemical structure of a monophosphate ester; here any R can be H or some organic radical.
Structure of a chiral phosphoric acid derived from BINOL.
Orthophosphoric acid H{{sub|3}}PO{{sub|4}}
Pyrophosphoric acid {{chem|H|4|P|2|O|7}}
Tripolyphosphoric acid {{chem|H|5|P|3|O|10}}
Tetrapolyphosphoric acid {{chem|H|6|P|4|O|13}}
Phosphoric anhydride P{{sub|4}}O{{sub|10}}

A phosphoric acid, in the general sense, is a phosphorus oxoacid in which each phosphorus (P) atom is in the oxidation state +5, and is bonded to four oxygen (O) atoms, one of them through a double bond, arranged as the corners of a tetrahedron.

The anions of orthophosphoric acid are orthophosphate (commonly called simply "phosphate"), monohydrogen phosphate , and dihydrogen phosphate.

Wet process flow diagram of phosphoric acid production. CW - cooling water.

Phosphoric acid

Inorganic compound with the chemical formula H3PO4.

Inorganic compound with the chemical formula H3PO4.

Wet process flow diagram of phosphoric acid production. CW - cooling water.

Removal of all three H+ ions gives the phosphate ion PO4(3−).

To produce food-grade phosphoric acid, phosphate ore is first reduced with coke in an electric arc furnace, to give elemental phosphorus.

Graph showing annual world phosphate rock production (megatons per yr), 1900–2016, reported by US Geological Survey

Peak phosphorus

Graph showing annual world phosphate rock production (megatons per yr), 1900–2016, reported by US Geological Survey
Phosphate rock mined in the United States, 1900-2015 (data from US Geological Survey)
Global distribution of commercial reserves of rock phosphate in 2016
Phosphate mine on Nauru, once one of the world's major sources of phosphate rock.

Peak phosphorus is a concept to describe the point in time when humanity reaches the maximum global production rate of phosphorus as an industrial and commercial raw material.

The accurate determination of peak phosphorus is dependent on knowing the total world's commercial phosphate reserves and resources, especially in the form of phosphate rock (a summarizing term for over 300 ores of different origin, composition, and phosphate content).

Eutrophication

Process by which an entire body of water, or parts of it, becomes progressively enriched with minerals and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus.

Process by which an entire body of water, or parts of it, becomes progressively enriched with minerals and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus.

1. Excess nutrients are applied to the soil. 2. Some nutrients leach into the soil and later drain into surface water. 3. Some nutrients run off over the ground into the body of water.  4. The excess nutrients cause an algal bloom.  5. The algal bloom reduces light penetration. 6. The plants beneath the algal bloom die because they cannot get sunlight to perform photosynthesis.  7. Eventually, the algal bloom dies and sinks to the bottom of the lake. Bacterial communities begin to decompose the remains, using up oxygen for respiration.  8. The decomposition causes the water to become depleted of oxygen if the water body is not regularly mixed vertically. Larger life forms, such as fish die.
Sodium triphosphate, once a component of many detergents, was a major contributor to eutrophication.
Cultural eutrophication is caused by human additions of nutrients into the water that cause over growth of algae which can block light and air exchange. The algae eventually are broken down by bacteria causing anoxic conditions and "dead zones".
Aerial view of Lake Valencia experiencing a large cultural eutrophication flux due to untreated wastewater discharging into the lake.
Eutrophication is apparent as increased turbidity in the northern part of the Caspian Sea, imaged from orbit.
Map of measured Gulf hypoxia zone, July 25–31, 2021-LUMCON-NOAA
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) (blue) and areas with coastal hypoxia (red) in the world’s ocean.
Eutrophication in a canal
The eutrophication of the Mono Lake which is a cyanobacteria-rich Soda lake.
Application of a phosphorus sorbent to a lake - The Netherlands

Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algal and aquatic plant growth.

Eutrophication is a process of increasing biomass generation in a water body caused by increasing concentrations of plant nutrients, most commonly phosphate and nitrate.