Phosphorus

PP 4 phosphoricred phosphoruswhite phosphorusphosphoritephosphorus compounds 31 P 32 Pinorganic phosphorus
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.wikipedia
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Pnictogen

group 15pnictidegroup V
Together with nitrogen, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, phosphorus is classified as a pnictogen.
It consists of the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and perhaps the chemically uncharacterized synthetic element moscovium (Mc).

Organophosphorus compound

organophosphorusorganophosphorus chemistryorganophosphine
Other applications include organophosphorus compounds in detergents, pesticides, and nerve agents.
Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus.

Phosphate

phosphatesphosphate groupinorganic phosphate
Phosphates (compounds containing the phosphate ion, PO 4 3− ) are a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and phospholipids.
Of the various phosphoric acids and phosphates, organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry (and, consequently, in ecology), and inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.

Phosphorus pentoxide

P 2 O 5 diphosphorus pentoxideP 4 O 10
The odour of combustion of this form has a characteristic garlic smell, and samples are commonly coated with white "phosphorus pentoxide", which consists of tetrahedra with oxygen inserted between the phosphorus atoms and at their vertices.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P 4 O 10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P 2 O 5 ).

Allotropes of phosphorus

white phosphorusred phosphorusphosphorus
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.

Phosphor

phosphorsP39 phosphorP7 phosphor
Since its discovery, phosphors and phosphorescence were used loosely to describe substances that shine in the dark without burning.
Phosphorus, the chemical element named for its light-emitting behavior, emits light due to chemiluminescence, not phosphorescence.

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
The vast majority of phosphorus compounds mined are consumed as fertilisers.
The global primary uses for both sulfur and phosphorus compounds relate to this basic process.

Radioactive tracer

radiotracerradiolabeledradiolabel
Radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine have been used extensively to trace the path of biochemical reactions.

Carbon disulfide

carbon disulphideCS 2 carbon bisulphide
Another form, scarlet phosphorus, is obtained by allowing a solution of white phosphorus in carbon disulfide to evaporate in sunlight.
Carbon disulfide is a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubber, and asphalt.

Albright and Wilson

Marchon Chemical worksAlbright & Wilson LtdAlbright & Wilson Manufacturing Ltd
Albright and Wilson in the UK and their Niagara Falls plant, for instance, were using phosphate rock in the 1890s and 1900s from Tennessee, Florida, and the Îles du Connétable (guano island sources of phosphate); by 1950, they were using phosphate rock mainly from Tennessee and North Africa.
Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of potassium chlorate and white phosphorus for the match industry.

Napalm

napalm bombNapalm BBLU-118
Owing to its pyrophoricity, white phosphorus is used as an additive in napalm.
One of Fieser's colleagues suggested adding phosphorus to the mix which increased the "ability to penetrate deeply...into the musculature, where it would continue to burn day after day."

Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance

31 P NMRphosphorus-31 NMR 31 P-NMR
The half-integer nuclear spin and high abundance of 31 P make phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy a very useful analytical tool in studies of phosphorus-containing samples.
Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy is an analytical chemistry technique that uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study chemical compounds that contain phosphorus.

Guano

bat guanowanudroppings
Albright and Wilson in the UK and their Niagara Falls plant, for instance, were using phosphate rock in the 1890s and 1900s from Tennessee, Florida, and the Îles du Connétable (guano island sources of phosphate); by 1950, they were using phosphate rock mainly from Tennessee and North Africa.
Some of bird guano's most common chemical elements are phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium.

Reuse of human waste

reuse of excretareusereuse excreta
As urine contains phosphorus, it has fertilising qualities which are still harnessed today in some countries, including Sweden, using methods for reuse of excreta.
Human waste contains resources that can be recovered: plant-available nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium as well as micronutrients such as sulphur and organic matter.

Phosphorus trifluoride

PF 3 Phosphorus(III) fluorideTrifluorophosphine
All four symmetrical trihalides are well known: gaseous PF 3, the yellowish liquids PCl 3 and PBr 3, and the solid PI 3.
Phosphorus trifluoride (formula PF 3 ), is a colorless and odorless gas.

Phosphorus pentafluoride

PF 5 Phosphorus(V) fluorideP
PCl 5 and PF 5 are common compounds.
Phosphorus pentafluoride, PF 5, is a phosphorus halide.

Phosphorus trichloride

PCl 3 PCl3phosphorus chloride
All four symmetrical trihalides are well known: gaseous PF 3, the yellowish liquids PCl 3 and PBr 3, and the solid PI 3.
Phosphorus trichloride is a chemical compound of phosphorus and chlorine, having the chemical formula PCl 3.

Chemiluminescence

chemiluminescentchemoluminescencechemoluminescent
The glow of phosphorus is caused by oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus — a process now called chemiluminescence.

Phosphorus tribromide

PBr 3
All four symmetrical trihalides are well known: gaseous PF 3, the yellowish liquids PCl 3 and PBr 3, and the solid PI 3.
Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr 3.

Phosphorus pentabromide

PBr 5
PBr 5 is an unstable solid formulated as PBr 4 + Br − and PI 5 is not known.
Phosphorus pentabromide is a reactive, yellow solid of formula PBr 5, which has the structure PBr 4 + Br − in the solid state but in the vapor phase is completely dissociated to PBr 3 and Br 2.

Hypophosphorous acid

H 3 PO 2 phosphinic acidsH 3 PO
Although many oxoacids of phosphorus are formed, only nine are commercially important, and three of them, hypophosphorous acid, phosphorous acid, and phosphoric acid, are particularly important.
Hypophosphorous acid (HPA), or phosphinic acid, is a phosphorus oxyacid and a powerful reducing agent with molecular formula H 3 PO 2.

Phosphorus triiodide

PI 3
All four symmetrical trihalides are well known: gaseous PF 3, the yellowish liquids PCl 3 and PBr 3, and the solid PI 3.
Note that phosphorus also forms a lower iodide, P 2 I 4, but the existence of PI 5 is doubtful at room temperature.

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

Johann HittorfHittorfHittorf, Johann Wilhelm
In 1865, Hittorf discovered that when phosphorus was recrystallised from molten lead, a red/purple form is obtained.
Hittorf's early investigations were on the allotropes of phosphorus and selenium.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.
The composition of the human body, by contrast, more closely follows the composition of seawater—save that the human body has additional stores of carbon and nitrogen necessary to form the proteins and nucleic acids, together with phosphorus in the nucleic acids and energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that occurs in the cells of all living organisms.