Phosphorus

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark
The tetrahedral structure of P4O10 and P4S10.
A stable diphosphene, a derivative of phosphorus(I).
Robert Boyle
Guano mining in the Central Chincha Islands, ca. 1860.
Mining of phosphate rock in Nauru
Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. The glass powder is used to increase the friction.
Phosphorus explosion

Chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.

- Phosphorus
White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

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Alpha

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf c. undefined 1904

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.

German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf c. undefined 1904

Hittorf's early investigations were on the allotropes of phosphorus and selenium.

Carbon disulfide insecticide ad from the 1896 issue of The American Elevator and Grain Trade magazine

Carbon disulfide

Neurotoxic colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

Neurotoxic colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

Carbon disulfide insecticide ad from the 1896 issue of The American Elevator and Grain Trade magazine

Carbon disulfide is a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubber, and asphalt.

Artificial nuclide americium-241 emitting alpha particles inserted into a cloud chamber for visualisation

Radioactive tracer

Chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

Chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

Artificial nuclide americium-241 emitting alpha particles inserted into a cloud chamber for visualisation

Radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine have been used extensively to trace the path of biochemical reactions.

Example of phosphorescence

Phosphor

Substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence; it emits light when exposed to some type of radiant energy.

Substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence; it emits light when exposed to some type of radiant energy.

Example of phosphorescence
Monochrome monitor
Aperture grille CRT phosphors
Jablonski diagram shows the energy levels in a fluorescing atom in a phosphor. An electron in the phosphor absorbs a high-energy photon from the applied radiation, exciting it to a higher energy level.  After losing some energy in non-radiative transitions, it eventually transitions back to its ground state energy level by fluorescence, emitting a photon of lower energy in the visible light region.
Spectra of constituent blue, green and red phosphors in a common cathode ray tube.

Phosphorus, the light-emitting chemical element for which phosphors are named, emits light due to chemiluminescence, not phosphorescence.

Diagrammatic representation of Watson and Crick's DNA structure

Hybridization probe

Fragment of DNA or RNA of usually 15–10000 nucleotide long which can be radioactively or fluorescently labeled.

Fragment of DNA or RNA of usually 15–10000 nucleotide long which can be radioactively or fluorescently labeled.

Diagrammatic representation of Watson and Crick's DNA structure

Commonly used markers are 32P (a radioactive isotope of phosphorus incorporated into the phosphodiester bond in the probe DNA), digoxigenin, a non-radioactive, antibody-based marker, biotin or fluorescein.

North American F-100 Super Sabre deploying napalm in a training exercise.

Napalm

Incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical or diesel fuel).

Incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical or diesel fuel).

North American F-100 Super Sabre deploying napalm in a training exercise.
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Results of a napalm strike by the Aviation navale on suspected Viet Minh positions during the First Indochina War, December 1953
Riverboat of the US Brown-water navy deploying an ignited napalm mixture from a riverboat-mounted flamethrower in Vietnam.

One of Fieser's colleagues suggested adding phosphorus to the mix which increased the "ability to penetrate deeply [...] into the musculature, where it would continue to burn day after day."

Potassium chlorate burning sugar

Albright and Wilson

Potassium chlorate burning sugar

Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of potassium chlorate and white phosphorus for the match industry.

Structure of solid phosphorus pentachloride, illustrating its autoionization at higher concentrations.

Phosphorus pentachloride

Chemical compound with the formula PCl5.

Chemical compound with the formula PCl5.

Structure of solid phosphorus pentachloride, illustrating its autoionization at higher concentrations.

It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides, others being PCl3 and POCl3.

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

Phosphorus pentafluoride

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

Phosphorus pentafluoride, PF5, is a phosphorus halide.

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

Phosphorus pentabromide

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

Phosphorus pentabromide is a reactive, yellow solid of formula PBr5, which has the structure PBr4+ Br− in the solid state but in the vapor phase is completely dissociated to PBr3 and Br2.