Phosphorus

White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark
The tetrahedral structure of P4O10 and P4S10.
A stable diphosphene, a derivative of phosphorus(I).
Robert Boyle
Guano mining in the Central Chincha Islands, ca. 1860.
Mining of phosphate rock in Nauru
Match striking surface made of a mixture of red phosphorus, glue and ground glass. The glass powder is used to increase the friction.
Phosphorus explosion

Chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.

- Phosphorus
White phosphorus exposed to air glows in the dark

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Steel

Alloy made up of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron.

Alloy made up of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron.

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Incandescent steel workpiece in this depiction of the blacksmith's art
Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions necessary to form different phases. Martensite is not shown, as it is not a stable phase.
Fe-C phase diagram for carbon steels; showing the A0, A1, A2 and A3 critical temperatures for heat treatments.
Iron ore pellets for the production of steel
Bloomery smelting during the Middle Ages
A Bessemer converter in Sheffield, England
A Siemens-Martin open hearth furnace in the Brandenburg Museum of Industry.
White-hot steel pouring out of an electric arc furnace.
Steel production (in million tons) by country in 2007
Bethlehem Steel (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania facility pictured) was one of the world's largest manufacturers of steel before its closure in 2003
Forging a structural member out of steel
A roll of steel wool
A carbon steel knife
A steel bridge
A steel pylon suspending overhead power lines
A stainless steel gravy boat

Additional elements, most frequently considered undesirable, are also important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen, and copper.

The USS Los Angeles, a United States Navy airship built in Germany by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin (Zeppelin Airship Company)

Zeppelin

Type of rigid airship named after the German inventor Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.

Type of rigid airship named after the German inventor Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.

The USS Los Angeles, a United States Navy airship built in Germany by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin (Zeppelin Airship Company)
The pink ovals depict hydrogen cells inside the LZ 127, the magenta elements are Blaugas cells. The full-resolution picture labels more internals.
Ferdinand von Zeppelin
The first flight of LZ 1 over Lake Constance (the Bodensee) in 1900
Zeppelin LZ 4 with its multiple stabilizers, 1908
Wreckage of LZ 4
LZ 7 Deutschland
A monument near Bad Iburg commemorating the 1910 LZ 7 crash
LZ 18 (L 2)
German zeppelin bombs Liège WWI
Crater of a Zeppelin bomb in Paris, 1916
Wreckage of Zeppelin L31 shot down over England 23 Sept 1916.
A Zeppelin flying over
British First World War poster of a Zeppelin above London at night
A commemorative plaque at 61 Farringdon Road, London
Zeppelin memorial flagstone, Edinburgh
Zeppelin bomb, on display at the National Museum of Flight near Edinburgh
Section of girder from a Zeppelin shot down in England in 1916. Now at the National Physical Laboratory
British propaganda postcard, entitled "The End of the 'Baby-Killer'"
A damaged Zeppelin gondola with a collapsable boat lying nearby. September 1916
L32 Great Burstead Memorial
1917 watercolour by Felix Schwormstädt – translated title: "In the rear engine gondola of a Zeppelin airship during the flight through enemy airspace after a successful attack on England"
Memorial in Camberwell Old Cemetery, London, to 21 civilians killed by Zeppelin bombings in 1917
The observation car preserved at the Imperial War Museum
The Bodensee 1919
The Nordstern 1920
ZR-3 USS Los Angeles over southern Manhattan
Graf Zeppelin under construction
The Graf Zeppelin
US Air Mail 1930 picturing the Graf Zeppelin
The Hindenburg: note swastikas on tail fins.
The Hindenburg on fire in 1937
Zeppelin NT

Britain developed new bullets, the Brock containing oxidant potassium chlorate, and the Buckingham filled with phosphorus, which reacted with the chlorate to catch fire and hence ignite the Zeppelin's hydrogen.

An igniting match

Match

Tool for starting a fire.

Tool for starting a fire.

An igniting match
The Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers Stone (1771), by Joseph Wright, depicting Hennig Brand discovering phosphorus.
Sulfur-head matches, 1828, lit by dipping into a bottle of phosphorus
A tin "Congreves" matchbox (1827), produced by John Walker, inventor of the friction match.
Packing girls at the Bryant & May factory.
The London matchgirls strike of 1888 campaigned against the use of white phosphorus in match making, which led to bone disorders such as phossy jaw.
The New York Times report dated 29 January 1911
Jönköpings safety match industry 1872.
Old match factory in Itkonniemi, Kuopio, Finland
Super Deportistas matches from mid 20th century Mexico, part of the permanent collection of the Museo del Objeto del Objeto, in Mexico City.
A match at the beginning of the combustion process
Ignition of a match
Matches with an intellectual pastime printed
Household safety matches
Special storm matches

Lucifers were, however, quickly replaced after 1830 by matches made according to the process devised by Frenchman Charles Sauria, who substituted white phosphorus for the antimony sulfide.

US Air Force Douglas A-1E Skyraider dropping a 100 lb M47 white phosphorus bomb on a Viet Cong position in South Vietnam in 1966

White phosphorus munitions

US Air Force Douglas A-1E Skyraider dropping a 100 lb M47 white phosphorus bomb on a Viet Cong position in South Vietnam in 1966
A Senior Airman of the United States Air Force inspects 2.75 in white phosphorus marker rockets at Osan Air Base, South Korea in 1996
A WP mortar bomb explosion during manoeuvres in France, 15 August 1918
Air burst of a white phosphorus bomb over the USS Alabama during a test exercise conducted by Billy Mitchell, September 1921
A USAF Security Police Squadron member packs an 81 mm white phosphorus smoke-screen mortar round during weapons training, 1980.
Airburst of an Israeli white phosphorus shell over Gaza City
Gazan youth undergoing hospital treatment for white phosphorus injuries

White phosphorus munitions are weapons that use one of the common allotropes of the chemical element phosphorus.

A collection of pnictogen samples

Pnictogen

Any of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.

Any of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.

A collection of pnictogen samples

It consists of the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi).

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Mineral (nutrient)

Chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

Chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium.

Molten slag is carried outside and poured into a dump

Slag

By-product of smelting ores and used metals.

By-product of smelting ores and used metals.

Molten slag is carried outside and poured into a dump
Global production of iron and steel, 1942- 2018, according to USGS.
Pile of steelmaking slag at the ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor steelmaking facility, Indiana. Photograph by Nadine Piatak, USGS.
The Manufacture of Iron – Carting Away the Scoriæ (slag), an 1873 wood engraving
Slag run-off from one of the open hearth furnaces of a steel mill, Republic Steel, Youngstown, Ohio, November 1941. Slag is drawn off the furnace just before the molten steel is poured into ladles for ingotting.
A path through a slag heap in Clarkdale, Arizona, showing the striations from the rusting corrugated sheets retaining it.
Early slag from Denmark, c. 200-500 CE

The major components of these slags include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminium, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and others depending on the specifics of the raw materials used.

A chemoluminescent reaction in an Erlenmeyer flask

Chemiluminescence

Luminol and [B] is hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a suitable catalyst we have:

Luminol and [B] is hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a suitable catalyst we have:

A chemoluminescent reaction in an Erlenmeyer flask
Bioluminescence in nature: A male firefly mating with a female of the species Lampyris noctiluca.
Chemiluminescence after a reaction of hydrogen peroxide and luminol
Green and blue glow sticks

One of the oldest known chemiluminescent reactions is that of elemental white phosphorus oxidizing in moist air, producing a green glow. This is a gas-phase reaction of phosphorus vapor, above the solid, with oxygen producing the excited states (PO)2 and HPO.

Phosphorescent bird figure

Phosphorescence

Type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.

Type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.

Phosphorescent bird figure
Phosphorescent, europium-doped, strontium silicate-aluminate oxide powder under visible light, fluorescing/phosphorescing under long-wave UV light, and persistently phosphorescing in total darkness
Jablonski diagram of an energy scheme used to explain the difference between fluorescence and phosphorescence. The excitation of molecule A to its singlet excited state (1A*) may, after a short time between absorption and emission (fluorescence lifetime), return immediately to ground state, giving off a photon via fluorescence (decay time). However, sustained excitation is followed by intersystem crossing to the triplet state (3A) that relaxes to the ground state by phosphorescence with much longer decay times.
After an electron absorbs a photon of high energy, it may undergo vibrational relaxations and intersystem crossing to another spin state. Again the system relaxes vibrationally in the new spin state and eventually emits light by phosphorescence.
An extremely intense pulse of short-wave UV light in a flashtube produced this blue persistent-phosphorescence in the amorphous, fused silica envelope, lasting as long as 20 minutes after the 3.5 microsecond flash.
An electron microscope reveals vacancy defects in a crystalline lattice of molybdenum disulfide. The missing sulfur atoms leave dangling bonds between the molybdenum atoms, creating a trap in the empty spaces.
Phosphorescent elements of a wrist watch that had been exposed to bright light: clock face with twelve dots as well as minute and hour hand
thumb|Zinc sulfide (left) and strontium aluminate (right), in visible light, in darkness, and after 4 minutes in the dark.
thumb|Calcium sulfide (left) and metal-earth silicate (right) phosphoresce in red and blue respectively.
Before image of capturing a shadow on a phosphorescent wall.
After image of capturing a shadow on a phosphorescent wall.

In 1677, Hennig Brand isolated a new element that glowed due to a chemiluminescent reaction when exposed to air, and named it "phosphorus".

Oil painting of Ambrose Godfrey

Ambrose Godfrey

Oil painting of Ambrose Godfrey
Engraving of Ambrose Godfrey by George Vertue
Etching of Abrose Godrey's chemical laboratory
Ambrose Godfrey's chemical factory
Diorama of Ambrose Godfrey's chemical laboratory

Ambrose Godfrey-Hanckwitz FRS (1660 – 15 January 1741), also known as Gottfried Hankwitz, also written Hanckewitz, or Ambrose Godfrey as he preferred to be known, was a German-born British phosphorus manufacturer and apothecary.